Immunological control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in an immunodeficient murine model of thermal injuries.
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a major cause of sepsis in patients who are immunosuppressed by their burns. In this study, an immunological regulation of MRSA infection was attempted in a mouse model of thermal injury. SCIDbg mice were resistant to MRSA infection, while SCIDbgMN mice (SCIDbg mice depleted of neutrophils and macrophages (Mphi)) were susceptible to the same infection. Also, thermally injured SCIDbg mice were shown to be susceptible to MRSA infection. On the other hand, the resistance of SCIDbgMN mice to the infection was completely recovered after an inoculation with Mphi from normal mice. However, anti-MRSA resistance was not shown in SCIDbgMN mice inoculated with Mphi from thermally injured mice. Mphi from MRSA-infected thermally injured mice were identified as alternatively activated Mphi, and Mphi from MRSA-infected unburned mice were characterized as classically activated Mphi. Mphi from thermally injured SCIDbg mice previously treated with 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) protected SCIDbgMN mice against MRSA infection. Ge-132 has been described as an inhibitor of alternatively activated Mphi generation. These results suggest that MRSA infection in thermally injured patients is controlled immunologically through the induction of anti-MRSA effector cells and elimination of burn-associated alternatively activated Mphi, which are cells that inhibit the generation of classically activated Mphi.
Article: Sphingosylphosphorylcholine is an activator of transglutaminase activity in human keratinocytes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We characterize functional roles of a newly discovered chemical, sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), in the epidermis by elucidating the biological effect of SPC on human keratinocytes in culture. The intracellular calcium level of human keratinocytes was increased by incubation with SPC, but not with sphingosine (SS) or sphingomyelin (SM). The addition of SPC, sphingosine 1-phosphate (SSP), or SS to human keratinocytes at 10 microM concentrations also significantly suppressed DNA synthesis, and SPC, but not SSP, or SS increased the activities of membrane-bound and soluble transglutaminases (TGases). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of TGase transcripts revealed that SPC treatment at 10 microM concentrations increased the expression of TGase 1 mRNA. The increased activity of soluble TGase was accompanied by the concomitant activation of cathepsin D as revealed by the increased ratio of mature active form to inactive intermediate form of the protease. Pretreatment of human keratinocytes with pepstatin, a protease inhibitor, blocked the increase in soluble TGase activity induced by treatment with SPC. Consistently, SPC treatment at 1-10 microM concentrations stimulated the cornified envelope formation. These findings suggest that SPC plays an important role in the altered keratinization process of epidermis in skin diseases with high expression of sphingomyelin deacylase, such as atopic dermatitis.The Journal of Lipid Research 11/2001; 42(10):1562-70. · 5.56 Impact Factor
Article: An increase in the susceptibility of burned patients to infectious complications due to impaired production of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a major mortality concern with burned patients, who have an increased susceptibility to infectious complications. PBMC from 41 of 45 severely burned patients (91%) failed to produce macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha) in cultures, while 2355-6900 pg/ml MIP-1alpha were produced by healthy donor PBMC, stimulation with anti-human CD3 mAb. Healthy chimeras (SCID mice inoculated with healthy donor PBMC) treated with anti-human MIP-1alpha mAb and patient chimeras (SCID mice reconstituted with burned patient PBMC) were susceptible (0% survival) to infectious complications induced by well-controlled cecal ligation and puncture. In contrast, patient chimeras treated with human recombinant MIP-1alpha and healthy chimeras were resistant ( approximately 77-81% survival). Similarly, after anti-mouse CD3 mAb stimulation, splenic mononuclear cells from burned mice (6 h to 3 days after thermal injury) did not produce significant amounts of MIP-1alpha in their culture fluids. Normal mice treated with anti-murine MIP-1alpha mAb and burned mice were susceptible to cecal ligation- and puncture-induced infectious complications, while burned mice treated with murine recombinant MIP-1alpha and normal mice were resistant. Burned patients seemed to be more susceptible to infectious complications when the production of MIP-1alpha was impaired.The Journal of Immunology 11/2002; 169(8):4460-6. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Preventive effect of a synthetic immunomodulator, 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, on the generation of suppressor macrophages in mice immunized with allogeneic lymphocytes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) on the generation of splenic suppressor macrophages (S-M phi) in C3H/He mice (H-2k) immunized with allogeneic spleen cells from C57Bl/6 mice (H-2b) was investigated. We have previously demonstrated that S-M phi expressing I-J antigen, which appeared during alloimmunization, inhibited cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in the MLR and the elimination of these S-M phi before subjection to the MLR resulted in more effective generation of CTL. The CTL activity, which was determined in vivo by the Winn's test, was markedly enhanced when immunized mice received a 100 mg/kg dose of Ge-132. The compound was found to be the most efficacious when injected simultaneously with the immunization. The activity of allospecific CTL co-cultured with M phi fractions obtained from immunized mice in a 4-h 51Cr-release assay was shown to be 31% lysis of the target cells as compared with 90% lysis of the target cells in effector cells co-cultured with normal M phi fractions. In contrast, effector cells co-cultured with M phi fractions from Ge-132-treated immunized mice lysed 95% of the target cells. Analysis of the level of I-J antigen expression on macrophages (M phi) obtained from mice 7 days after immunization revealed a > 2.5-fold increase, whereas I-A antigen expression remained constant when compared with splenic M phi from naive mice. In contrast, the opposite effect on I-J and I-A antigen expression was observed in splenic M phi from alloimmunized mice treated with Ge-132. These results suggest that Ge-132 could regulate CTL generation in alloimmunized mice by preventing the generation of I-J+ S-M phi.Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 01/1992; 14(4):841-64. · 1.83 Impact Factor