High performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives from Echinacea purpurea extracts

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of North Carolina Greensboro, 435 New Science Bldg., Greensboro, NC 27402, USA.
Journal of Chromatography A (Impact Factor: 4.17). 02/2006; 1103(2):219-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2005.11.008
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Extracts of the plant Echinacea purpurea are widely used for medicinal purposes. Effective quality control of these extracts requires rapid methods to determine their chemical composition. A new method for analysis of caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides from Echinacea extracts has been developed. With this method, isomeric isobutylamides and 2-methylbutylamides can be distinguished, a capability that previously published methods have lacked. Quantitative analyses carried out with this method on E. purpurea extracts that have been stored for 18 months indicate that they contain caftaric acid, cichoric acid, and undeca-2Z,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide at concentrations of 0.7, 0.71 and 2.0mg/mL, respectively.

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Available from: Nadja B Cech,
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    • "However, its anti-inflammatory activity alone was investigated (Fig. 2). The numbering system used here is consistent with a previous publication [32]. For crossreferencing , alkylamides 3, 4, 5, 11a, 11b, 15, and 16 in this paper correspond to alkylamides 1, 2, 3, 9, 8, 11, and 12, respectively, by the Bauer numbering system [31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine whether extracts and isolated alkylamides from Echinacea purpurea would be useful for prevention of the inflammatory response that accompanies infections with H1N1 influenza A. Seventeen extracts and 4 alkylamides were tested for the ability to inhibit production of cytokines, chemokines, and PGE₂ from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells infected with the H1N1 influenza A strain PR/8/34. The alkylamides undeca-2Z,4E-diene-8,10-diynic acid isobutylamide, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide, dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide, and undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide suppressed production of TNF-α and PGE₂ from infected cells. Dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide was especially effective at inhibiting production of these mediators and also strongly inhibited production of G-CSF, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α and CCL5/RANTES. In contrast, the ethanol extracts (75%), which were prepared from dormant roots of E. purpurea grown in different locations throughout North Carolina, displayed a range of effects from suppression to stimulation of mediator production. Precipitation of the extracts with ethanol removed the stimulatory activity, however, even after precipitation; many of the extracts did not display any suppressive activity. Analysis of the extracts revealed slight variations in concentration of alkylamides, caftaric acid, and cichoric acid, but the activity of the extracts did not strongly correlate with concentrations of these compounds. Our in vitro experiments suggest that E. purpurea extracts have the potential for use in alleviating the symptoms and pathology associated with infections with influenza A; however, further study will be necessary to define procedures necessary to unmask the alkylamide activity in crude extracts.
    International immunopharmacology 10/2010; 10(10):1268-78. DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2010.07.009 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • ". The components were identified based on molecular weights and fragmentation patterns observed with electrospray mass spectrometry as described previously (Cech et al., 2006a). The alkylamides were separated by HPLC (Figure 2) and tested individually for their ability to inhibit P450 2E1 . "
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    ABSTRACT: Ethanolic extracts from fresh Echinacea purpurea and Spilanthes acmella and dried Hydrastis canadensis were examined with regard to their ability to inhibit cytochrome P450(2E1) mediated oxidation of p-nitrophenol in vitro. In addition, individual constituents of these extracts, including alkylamides from E. purpurea and S. acmella, caffeic acid derivatives from E. purpurea, and several of the major alkaloids from H. canadensis, were tested for inhibition using the same assay. H. canadensis (goldenseal) was a strong inhibitor of the P450(2E1), and the inhibition appeared to be related to the presence of the alkaloids berberine, hydrastine and canadine in the extract. These compounds inhibited 2E1 with K(I) values ranging from 2.8 microM for hydrastine to 18 microM for berberine. The alkylamides present in E. purpurea and S. acmella also showed significant inhibition at concentrations as low as 25 microM, whereas the caffeic acid derivatives had no effect. Commercial green tea preparations, along with four of the individual tea catechins, were also examined and were found to have no effect on the activity of P450(2E1).
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 01/2008; 45(12):2359-65. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2007.06.012 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fatty acid amides, a structurally diverse endogenous congener of molecules active in cell signaling, may prove to have diverse activity due to their interface with a number of receptor systems, including, but not limited to cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) and PPARγ. Select extracts of Echinacea spp. contain the fatty acid amides known as alkylamides. These extracts were a previously popular remedy relied on by U.S. physicians, one of the top sellers in the natural products industry and are currently a frequently physician prescribed remedy in Germany. In the series of experiments contained within, Galenic ethanolic extracts of Echinacea spp. root were used for the quantification, identification, degradation and bioactivity studies. On extraction, depending on the ratio of plant to solvent and fresh or dry, the data indicate that there is variability in the alkylamide classes extracted. For example the acetylene alkylamides appear to extract under different concentrations, as well as degrade faster than the olefinic alkylamides. In addition, the alkylamides are found to degrade significantly in both cut/sift and powdered forms of echinacea root. Human liver microsome oxidation of the major alkylamide dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide generate hydroxylated, caboxylated and epoxidized metabolites. The carboxylated metabolite has, thus far, shown different immune activity than the native tetraene isobutylamide. Bioactivity studies, based on cytokine modulation of the alkylamides have been assumed to be due to a classic CB2 response. However, the results of experiments contained herein suggest that IL-2 inhibition by the alkylamide undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, which does not bind to CB2, is due to PPARγ activation. These data, combined with data generated by other groups, suggest that the alkylamides of Echinacea spp. are polyvalent in effect, in that they modulate multiple biochemical pathways. University of North Carolina, Greensboro Tai Sophia Institute
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