Ezzati M; Comparative Risk Assessment collaborating group (Cancers). Causes of cancer in the world: comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 12/2005; 366(9499):1784-93. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67725-2
Source: PubMed


With respect to reducing mortality, advances in cancer treatment have not been as effective as those for other chronic diseases; effective screening methods are available for only a few cancers. Primary prevention through lifestyle and environmental interventions remains the main way to reduce the burden of cancers. In this report, we estimate mortality from 12 types of cancer attributable to nine risk factors in seven World Bank regions for 2001.
We analysed data from the Comparative Risk Assessment project and from new sources to assess exposure to risk factors and relative risk by age, sex, and region. We applied population attributable fractions for individual and multiple risk factors to site-specific cancer mortality from WHO.
Of the 7 million deaths from cancer worldwide in 2001, an estimated 2.43 million (35%) were attributable to nine potentially modifiable risk factors. Of these, 0.76 million deaths were in high-income countries and 1.67 million in low-and-middle-income nations. Among low-and-middle-income regions, Europe and Central Asia had the highest proportion (39%) of deaths from cancer attributable to the risk factors studied. 1.6 million of the deaths attributable to these risk factors were in men and 0.83 million in women. Smoking, alcohol use, and low fruit and vegetable intake were the leading risk factors for death from cancer worldwide and in low-and-middle-income countries. In high-income countries, smoking, alcohol use, and overweight and obesity were the most important causes of cancer. Sexual transmission of human papilloma virus is a leading risk factor for cervical cancer in women in low-and-middle-income countries.
Reduction of exposure to key behavioural and environmental risk factors would prevent a substantial proportion of deaths from cancer.

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    • "Cancer is a complex disease, triggered by multiple mutations in various genes and exacerbated by a number of different behavioural and environmental factors. Some risk factors associated with possible onset and development of cancer are preventable, such as inappropriate diet, physical inactivity , smoking, and drinking [1], while other causes include pathogens (HPV16 and HPV18 are known to cause up to 70% of cervical cancer cases [2]), as well as genetic predisposition. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this review we discuss different mathematical models of gene regulatory networks as relevant to the onset and development of cancer. After discussion of alternative modelling approaches, we use a paradigmatic two-gene network to focus on the role played by time delays in the dynamics of gene regulatory networks. We contrast the dynamics of the reduced model arising in the limit of fast mRNA dynamics with that of the full model. The review concludes with the discussion of some open problems.
    Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine 10/2015; 2015(5). DOI:10.1155/2015/347273 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    • "For the 28 member states of the EU (EU28) – which are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (UK) – with a total population of 504.6 million inhabitants in 2012, the estimated cancer burden for 2012 was approximately 1.43 million new cancer cases in men and 1.21 million new cancer cases in women, and 716,000 cancer deaths in men and 561,000 cancer deaths in women, all figures excluding non-melanoma skin cancer [2]. It has been estimated that up to half of the cancer burden is preventable [3] [4]. Successful prevention requires a combination of individual preventive action (by avoiding or reducing harmful exposures) and group action (when exposure is eliminated or reduced by measures effective at the population level). "
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    ABSTRACT: This overview describes the principles of the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer and provides an introduction to the 12 recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Among the 504.6 million inhabitants of the member states of the European Union (EU28), there are annually 2.64 million new cancer cases and 1.28 million deaths from cancer. It is estimated that this cancer burden could be reduced by up to one half if scientific knowledge on causes of cancer could be translated into successful prevention. The Code is a preventive tool aimed to reduce the cancer burden by informing people how to avoid or reduce carcinogenic exposures, adopt behaviours to reduce the cancer risk, or to participate in organised intervention programmes. The Code should also form a base to guide national health policies in cancer prevention. The 12 recommendations are: not smoking or using other tobacco products; avoiding second-hand smoke; being a healthy body weight; encouraging physical activity; having a healthy diet; limiting alcohol consumption, with not drinking alcohol being better for cancer prevention; avoiding too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation; avoiding cancer-causing agents at the workplace; reducing exposure to high levels of radon; encouraging breastfeeding; limiting the use of hormone replacement therapy; participating in organised vaccination programmes against hepatitis B for newborns and human papillomavirus for girls; and participating in organised screening programmes for bowel cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    07/2015; 105. DOI:10.1016/j.canep.2015.05.009
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    • "Cancer is the major cause of human deaths worldwide because of its high incidence and mortality [1] [2]. In order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients, the need of new therapies or therapeutic combinations is very urgent all over the world [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Structural modification was performed at the C-28 position of betulonic acid (BetA). Twenty-five BetA derivatives were synthesized, and evaluated for their antitumor activities against MGC-803, PC3, Bcap-37, A375, and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines by MTT assay. Among the derivatives, most of the derivatives had significant antiproliferative ability (IC50 < 19 μM). Compound 3k, the most active compound, showed IC50 values of 3.6, 5.6, 4.2, 7.8, and 5.2 μM on the five cancer cell lines respectively, and was selected to investigate cell apoptosis by subsequent florescence staining and flow cytometry analysis. The results revealed that compound 3k could induce apoptosis in MGC-803 cell lines, and the apoptosis ratios reached 28.33% after 36 h of treatment at 10 μM. In addition, the study of cancer cell apoptotic signaling pathway indicated that the apoptosis of MGC-803 cells induced by compound 3k could be through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 05/2015; 96. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.04.006 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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