Freedom from graft vessel disease in heart and combined heart- and kidney-transplanted patients treated with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression.
ABSTRACT In end-stage cardiomyopathy where concomitant chronic renal failure is a contraindication for cardiac transplantation (HTx), simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation (HKTx) may be the only feasible therapeutic option. Due to the increased donor shortage, the clinical outcome of combined HKTx patients on tacrolimus-based immunosuppression was assessed and compared with a group of HTx patients.
Three hundred forty-nine HTxs, including 13 (4%) combined HKTxs, were performed since 1995. Two hundred twenty-one HTx and all HKTx recipients received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. Acute rejection episodes (AREs), infections, renal function and clinical outcome were evaluated. Pre-operative renal diagnoses for HKTx patients included cystic nephropathy (n = 4), glomerulonephritis (n = 4), cytostatica-induced nephropathy (n = 1), chronic rejection after renal transplant (n = 1), reflux nephropathy (n = 2) and chronic calcineurin-inhibitor -induced nephropathy after HTx (n = 1). Twelve patients (92%) were on hemodialysis pre-operatively, 1 underwent implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) before HKTx.
After 4.7 +/- 2 years, 92% of HKTx compared with 85% of HTx patients had survived (p = 0.42). Acute cardiac rejection episodes were more frequent in HTx than in HKTx patients (0.04 +/- 0.09 vs 0.02 +/- 0.04 ARE/100 patient-days; p = 0.07). Incidence of infection was comparable (0.3 +/- 0.2 vs 0.5 +/- 0.4 infection/100 patient-days). Freedom from transplant vasculopathy was 100% in the HKTx group compared with 71% in the HTx group after 4 years (p = 0.04).
Tacrolimus-based immunosuppression yields promising long-term results in HKTx and HTx. The incidence of transplant vasculopathy seems to be lower after HKTx than after HTx. If these results are secondary to a protective effect of tacrolimus-induced tolerance or of tolerance-associated co-transplantation they will need to be investigated in prospective multicenter trials.
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ABSTRACT: Combined heart-kidney transplantation with allografts from the same donor has been long proved to be a feasible approach for selected patients with coexisting end-stage cardiomyopathy and renal disease. The purpose of this retrospective study is to analyze our long-term results and compare these results with heart-only transplantation over a 7-year period. Between June 1992 and April 1999, 10 patients underwent combined heart-kidney transplantation at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. They were all men from 44 to 70 years old (mean age, 59 +/- 8.3 years) who had a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 19.4% +/- 5.0% (range, 9%-25%) and a mean creatinine clearance of 25.4 mL/min (range, 10-39 mL/min). Four patients underwent pretransplantation dialysis. There was no operative mortality. The actuarial survival at 1, 2, and 5 years was 100%, 88% +/- 11.7%, and 55% +/- 20.1%, respectively. By comparison, the operative mortality of 169 patients who underwent heart-only transplantation during the same time interval was 2.4%, with an actuarial survival at 1, 2, and 5 years of 92% +/- 2.1%, 84% +/- 2.8%, and 71% +/- 3.9%, respectively (P =.37). Eight patients showed no evidence of significant (> or =1B) cardiac allograft rejection postoperatively, and the actuarial freedom from rejection at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 90% +/- 9%, 80% +/- 13%, and 80% +/- 13%, respectively. Renal allograft survival was 90% at 1 and 2 years. Combined heart-kidney transplantation yields satisfactory long-term results similar to those for heart-only transplantation, with a low incidence of cardiac allograft rejection and renal allograft survival when both allografts are from the same donor. This approach effectively expands the selection criteria for heart-only and kidney-only transplantation in potential candidates with coexisting end-stage cardiac and renal disease.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 09/2001; 122(3):495-500. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present analysis was to define the role of simultaneous heart and kidney transplantation (HNTX) using organs from the same donor by evaluation of clinical strategy and achieved outcome compared with a reference group of concurrently single heart transplant (HTX) and kidney transplant (NTX) recipients. Compared with other organ combinations (pancreas-kidney, heart-lung), HNTX has been performed infrequently and is reported mainly as case records in the literature. Because of expansion of recipient selection criteria for HTX and NTX, the number of patients requiring simultaneous replacement of both organs is increasing. Six HNTX recipients, three of them suffering from long-standing type I diabetes, received transplants between September 1990 and March 1996 and were analyzed in terms of clinical and immunological demographics and outcome. They were compared with 379 HTX and 769 NTX recipients operated upon within this period. Survival for HNTX is 100% with a mean follow-up of 32.7+/-21.1 months. Cold ischemic time of the kidney was significantly shorter for HNTX than for NTX (6.5+/-1.0 hr vs. 22.1+/-6.8 hr, P<0.005). Although HNTX patients received HLA-unmatched grafts, no rejection of the kidney has been observed to date. There was no difference for rejection of the heart in HNTX compared to HTX recipients. Satisfying results are obtained by HNTX and justify the use of two organs for one recipient. The favorable immunological behavior of the kidney despite use of HLA-unmatched grafts is most probably explained by higher immunosuppression and short cold ischemic time, although a combination effect cannot be excluded.Transplantation 10/1997; 64(8):1129-34. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Combined heart and kidney transplantation has been documented, although data regarding immunosuppression, rejection episodes, and graft or patient survival have not been detailed. We evaluated our experience and more than 10-year outcome with patients selected for combined heart and kidney transplantation. Eight patients aged 29 to 59 years were selected for combined heart and kidney transplantation. The indications were end-stage heart disease and underlying renal pathology, or secondary renal insufficiency, or renal failure. Six patients were dialysis dependent before transplantation. There were 7 simultaneous procedures and 1 staged procedure. The heart was transplanted first in all cases. All patients were maintained after transplantation on azathioprine (2 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) and whole-blood monoclonal cyclosporine levels at greater than 200 microg/L; prednisone was not decreased to less than 10 mg/d. Seven (87.5%) patients have survived a mean duration of 100.4 months (range, 51-144 months), and each allograft has continued to function. The only death was due to pulmonary emboli and was not related to allograft rejection or failure. Only 4 cardiac and 4 kidney allograft rejections have occurred. Five patients have been free of kidney rejection, 1 patient has been rejection free for more than 8 years, and no patient has had simultaneous rejection. In select patients, combined heart and kidney transplantation can provide long-term graft function and patient survival. The low rates of rejection support our current approach to immunosuppression. Our experience indicates that end-stage failure of either heart or kidney does not necessarily preclude dual-organ transplantation.Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 01/2004; 126(6):2065-71. · 3.53 Impact Factor