Article

Comparative toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate host defense to Bordetella infection.

Pathobiology Graduate Program, Immunology Research Laboratories, Department of Veterinary Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 4.16). 01/2006; 73(12):8144-52. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.73.12.8144-8152.2005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica are closely related species associated with respiratory disease in humans and other mammals. While B. bronchiseptica has a wide host range, B. pertussis and B. parapertussis evolved separately from a B. bronchiseptica-like progenitor to naturally infect only humans. Despite very different doubling times in vitro, all three establish similar levels of infection in the mouse lung within 72 h. Recent work has revealed separate roles for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in immunity to B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica, while no role for TLR4 during B. parapertussis infection has been described. Here we compared the requirement for TLR4 in innate host defense to these organisms using the same mouse infection model. While B. bronchiseptica causes lethal disease in TLR4-deficient mice, B. pertussis and B. parapertussis do not. Correspondingly, TLR4 is critical in limiting B. bronchiseptica but not B. pertussis or B. parapertussis bacterial numbers during the first 72 h. Interestingly, B. bronchiseptica induces a TLR4-dependent cytokine response that is considerably larger than that induced by B. pertussis or B. parapertussis. Analysis of their endotoxins using RAW cells suggests that B. bronchiseptica lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is 10- and 100-fold more stimulatory than B. pertussis or B. parapertussis LPS, respectively. The difference in LPS stimulus is more pronounced when using HEK293 cells expressing human TLR4. Thus, it appears that in adapting to infect humans, B. pertussis and B. parapertussis independently modified their LPS to reduce TLR4-mediated responses, which may compensate for slower growth rates and facilitate host colonization.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
115 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, has recently re-emerged as a major public health threat despite high levels of vaccination against the aetiological agent Bordetella pertussis. In this Review, we describe the pathogenesis of this disease, with a focus on recent mechanistic insights into B. pertussis virulence-factor function. We also discuss the changing epidemiology of pertussis and the challenges facing vaccine development. Despite decades of research, many aspects of B. pertussis physiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. We highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed to develop improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies.
    Nature Reviews Microbiology 03/2014; 12(4). DOI:10.1038/nrmicro3235 · 23.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transmission of pathogens has been notoriously difficult to study under laboratory conditions leaving knowledge gaps regarding how bacterial factors and host immune components affect the spread of infections between hosts. We describe the development of a mouse model of transmission of a natural pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and its use to assess the impact of host immune functions. Although B. bronchiseptica transmits poorly between wild-type mice and mice lacking other immune components, it transmits efficiently between mice deficient in Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4). TLR4-mutant mice were more susceptible to initial colonization, and poorly controlled pathogen growth and shedding. Heavy neutrophil infiltration distinguished TLR4-deficient responses, and neutrophil depletion did not affect respiratory CFU load, but decreased bacterial shedding. The effect of TLR4 response on transmission may explain the extensive variation in TLR4 agonist potency observed among closely related subspecies of Bordetella. This transmission model will enable mechanistic studies of how pathogens spread from one host to another, the defining feature of infectious disease.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85229. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085229 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    12/2011, Degree: M. Sc.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
26 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014