Reduction of oral mucositis by palifermin (rHuKGF): dose-effect of rHuKGF.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the dose effect of palifermin (recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor, rHuKGF) for reduction of the response of oral mucosa to fractionated radiotherapy in a mouse model.
Ulceration (confluent mucositis) of mouse tongue epithelium was analysed as the clinically relevant endpoint. Palifermin at doses from 1 - 30 mg/kg was administered before the onset (day -3), at the end of the first (day +4) or the second week of irradiation (day +11) with 5 x 3 Gy/week. Each protocol was terminated by graded radiation test (top-up) doses. In a further experiment, optimally effective doses were given on days -3 and +4, or -3, +4 and +11.
Single dose irradiation of mouse mucosa yielded an ED50 (dose inducing ulcer in 50% of the mice) of 10.7 +/- 1.0 Gy. With fractionated irradiation for 1 week an ED50 for test irradiation (day +7) of 5.1 +/- 1.9 Gy was observed. After 2 weeks (day +14), the ED50 was 7.3 +/- 1.9 Gy. Palifermin significantly increased the ED50 values in all protocols tested. Maximally effective doses for single injections were 15.0 mg/kg (day -3, +11) or 22.5 mg/kg (day +4), which yielded ED50 values of 12.1 +/- 1.3 Gy, 13.7 +/- 1.5 Gy and 14.4 +/- 1.3 Gy, respectively. Higher palifermin doses did not further increase the ED50. Repeated injections on days -3 and +4 did not increase the ED50 beyond the value obtained with injections on day +4 alone. An additional injection on day +11 increased the ED50 further to 15.1 +/- 0.1 Gy.
A significant palifermin dose-effect was seen at doses below 15 mg/kg. However, a significant increase in oral mucosal radiation tolerance by palifermin over untreated control tissue was observed already with low doses of 1 mg/kg. This indicates that in clinical studies with palifermin, the dose of the growth factor may be of minor relevance over a wide dose range.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oral mucositis is a severe and dose limiting early side effect of radiotherapy for head-and-neck tumors. This study was initiated to determine the effect of bone marrow- and mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on oral mucositis (mouse tongue model) induced by fractionated irradiation. Daily fractionated irradiation (5 × 3 Gy/week) was given over 1 (days 0-4) or 3 weeks (days 0-4, 7-11, 14-18). Each protocol was terminated (day 7 or 21) by graded test doses (5 dose groups, 10 animals each) in order to generate complete dose-effect curves. The incidence of mucosal ulceration, corresponding to confluent mucositis grade 3 (RTOG/EORTC), was analyzed as the primary, clinically relevant endpoint. Bone marrow or mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted intravenously at various time points within these fractionation protocols. Transplantation of 6 × 10(6), but not of 3 × 10(6) bone marrow stem cells on day - 1, + 4, + 8, + 11 or + 15 significantly increased the ED50 values (dose, at which an ulcer is expected in 50 % of the mice); transplantation on day + 2, in contrast, was ineffective. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on day - 1, 2 or + 8 significantly, and on day + 4 marginally increased the ED50 values. Transplantation of bone marrow or mesenchymal stem cells has the potential to modulate radiation-induced oral mucositis during fractionated radiotherapy. The effect is dependent on the timing of the transplantation. The mechanisms require further investigation.Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 01/2014; 190(4). DOI:10.1007/s00066-013-0510-3 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oral mucositis is a frequent early side effect of radio(chemo)therapy of head-and-neck malignancies. The epithelial radiation response is accompanied by inflammatory reactions; their interaction with epithelial processes remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on the oral mucosal radiation response in the mouse tongue model.Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00066-014-0775-1 · 2.73 Impact Factor