Article

Biomarkers and assessment of vaccine responses.

Focus Technologies, Cypress, CA 90630, USA.
Biomarkers (Impact Factor: 2.52). 12/2005; 10 Suppl 1:S50-7. DOI: 10.1080/13547500500216629
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vaccines for infectious diseases have in the past, and will into the future, relied on a variety of surrogate markers to monitor vaccine efficacy. The primary surrogate markers have been either the antibody titer to vaccine antigens or the measurement of antibody function such as anti-viral neutralizing activity. In recent years, the measurement of T-cell function in conjunction with or independent of antibody measurements have been used to assess vaccine efficacy. ELISPOT, flow cytometry and intra-cellular staining methods are used to determine the impact of vaccines on immune mediators such as interleukins, interferons, MHC expression and pro-inflammatory mediators. The relevant B-cell and T-cell surrogate markers for vaccine efficacy is dependent on the vaccine being used, so that no universal set of surrogate markers can be applied to all vaccines. The use of T-cell surrogate markers can be complicated by the lack of sensitivity to accurately measure intra-cellular mediators. Although typically this is not a problem for infectious disease vaccines, it is a major problem for cancer vaccines.

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