Gender differences in polysomnographic sleep in young healthy sleepers.
ABSTRACT Middle-aged and elderly populations exhibit gender differences in polysomnographic (PSG) sleep; however, whether young men and women also show such differences remains unclear. Thirty-one young healthy sleepers (16 men and 15 women, aged 18 to 30 yr, mean+/-SD, 20.5+/-2.4 yr) completed 3 consecutive overnight sessions in a sleep laboratory, after maintaining a stable sleep-wake cycle for 1 wk before study entry. Standard PSG sleep and self-rated sleepiness data were collected each night. Across nights, women showed better sleep quality than men: they fell asleep faster (shorter sleep onset latency) and had better sleep efficiency, with more time asleep and less time awake (all differences showed large effect sizes, d=0.98 to 1.12). By contrast, men were sleepier than women across nights. Both men and women demonstrated poorer overall sleep quality on the first night compared with the subsequent 2 nights of study. We conclude young adult healthy sleepers show robust gender differences in PSG sleep, like older populations, with better sleep quality in women than in men. These results highlight the importance of gender in sleep and circadian rhythm research studies employing young subjects and have broader implications for women's health issues relating to these topics.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep is an essential function for physiologic and psychologic restitution. Sleep deprivation can result in decreased cognition, altered thermoregulation, impaired immune function, and altered respiratory mechanics, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and can exacerbate symptoms of depression. Sleep architecture changes over the life span of an individual, but differently between the genders. Additionally, women and men differ in the problems each experience with their sleep. What and how are these differences, as well as the effect of the hormonal milieu will be discussed. Overview Studies with polysomnography demonstrate that young women have better sleep quality than men. They have more rapid sleep onset and better sleep efficiency (time asleep). As people age, there is an increase in stage 1 and 2 sleep. SWS declines in both men and women, but decreases more so in men. Men tend to sleep less than women. But importantly, men function better than women with less sleep (Sorry Ladies). Additionally, across all age spans, females have more sleep complaints than males do. They complain of inadequate time to sleep, non-refreshing sleep, and difficulty with falling and staying asleep. This suggests that girls/women may be more sensitive to clinical symptoms or report symptoms more readily than boys/men. The Influence of Hormones One of the major factors influencing women's sleep is hormonal changes across the life span. Sleep in pre-adolescence is not different between the genders. However, in puberty changes begin to emerge. Coincident with menarche, girls begin to complain of insufficient sleep and trouble staying asleep with increased early morning awakenings. This can lead to daytime fatigue, mood changes, and impact learning in school. Girls report more stress during this time and teenage girls are diagnosed more often and earlier with affective disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract This article is part of a larger body of work entitled, "The Impact of Sex and Gender on Adaptation to Space." It was developed in response to a recommendation from the 2011 National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era," which emphasized the need to fully understand sex and gender differences. In this article, our workgroup-consisting of expert scientists and clinicians from academia and the private sector-investigated and summarized the current body of published and unpublished human research performed to date related to sex- and gender-based differences in behavioral adaptations to human spaceflight. This review identifies sex-related differences in: (1) sleep, circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral measures; (2) personality, group interactions, and work performance and satisfaction; and (3) stress and clinical disorders. Differences in these areas substantially impact the risks and optimal medical care required by space-faring women. To ensure the health and safety of male and female astronauts during long-duration space missions, it is imperative to understand the influences that sex and gender have on behavioral health changes occurring during spaceflight.Journal of Women's Health 09/2014; · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the agreement of sleep parameters measured by two actigraphs (SOMNOwatch plus®, ActiGraph GT3X+®), at two different placements (wrist, hip) and of self-reported sleep with polysomnography (PSG). Methods We estimated agreement with PSG for total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings after sleep onset (NASO) and sleep efficiency (SE%) for 100 participants of the general population, aged 18–75 years, by judging mean differences to PSG and intervals of agreement using Bland–Altman plots. Results Mean difference to PSG for TST was 8.3 min [95% confidence interval (CI), –7.4; 24.1] for SOMNOwatch plus® (wrist), 39.8 min (95% CI, 24.3, 55.3) for self-report, –79.0 min (95% CI, –89.0, –68.9) for SOMNOwatch plus® (hip), and –81.1 min (95% CI, –91.9, –70.4) for GT3X+® (hip). The width of intervals of agreement differed with the placement of the devices. Mean differences to PSG were higher for hip-based measurements compared to wrist placement for most parameters. Conclusion The agreement of sleep parameters assessed by actigraphy with PSG differs with the placement of the device. Measurement of sleep characteristics with hip-placed devices shows limited agreement when data analysis algorithms for wrist-based measurements are used. Assessment of SOL and NASO was not satisfactory with any of the methods compared to PSG in our study. The agreement between PSG and self-reported TST, WASO and SE% is comparable to that of actigraphy for these parameters.Sleep Medicine 09/2014; · 3.10 Impact Factor