Article

Insulin pump treatment of childhood type 1 diabetes.

Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, PO Box 208064, New Haven, CT 06520-8064, USA.
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.78). 01/2006; 52(6):1677-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2005.07.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Current goals for the treatment of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus include achieving near-normal blood sugar levels, minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia, optimizing quality of life, and preventing or delaying long-term microvascular complications. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides a treatment option that can assist in the attainment of all of these goals in all ages of children. Usage of CSII has been demonstrated to reduce glycosylated hemoglobin levels and frequency of severe hypoglycemia, without sacrifices in safety, quality of life, or weight gain, particularly in conjunction with the use of new insulin analogs and improvements in pump technology. Clinical studies of safety and efficacy of CSII in children are reviewed.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
82 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is a safe and effective alternative to insulin injections in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus. CSII can be associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in some patients. In our Center, patients/guardians are screened for proficiency in diabetes management skills as a prerequisite to initiation of CSII. We reviewed the clinical data from our patients to assess the predictors associated with nonadherence to CSII therapy. We retrospectively collected clinical data on all our CSII initiations between July 1999 to June 2003, including: body mass index, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), total daily dose, bolus to basal insulin ratio, hypoglycemic episodes (blood glucose <60 mg/dL/week), mean fasting self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), severity of lipohypertrophy, DKA, and pubertal status. Forty-six patients 9.90 +/- 3.4 years old (28 girls and 18 boys) started CSII in the 4-year period. While 39 patients (85%) 9.8 +/- 3.5 years old currently remain on CSII, seven patients (15%) 11.2 +/- 0.9 years old discontinued CSII. Fifteen patients (32.6%) were prepubertal at CSII initiation, and none discontinued CSII in this cohort, whereas seven of 31 (22.6%) pubertal patients discontinued CSII. The patients who continued CSII were similar to the CSII-discontinued cohort at baseline. At 12 months, rising HbA1c was the only predictor of future nonadherence to CSII. At 24 months, the discontinuation group had higher mean fasting SMBG levels and severe lipohypertrophy (P < 0.05). None of the prepubertal patients discontinued CSII, while all seven patients (100%) in the CSII-discontinued group were pubertal (P < 0.001). Extensive screening by a multidisciplinary diabetes team prior to initiation of CSII regimen results in relatively lower discontinuation rates and a higher chance of maintaining optimal glycemic control (HbA1C < 8%) compared to previous studies.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 02/2009; 11(3):131-7. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The current standard of care for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) employs a system of intensive diabetes management aimed at near-normal glycemia, which reduces the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications. Optimal management is an ongoing process based on a patient-centered collaboration with a primary care clinician and a multidisciplinary diabetes team that provides diabetes management, including education and psychosocial support. Intensive diabetes therapy attempts to mimic physiologic insulin replacement. Over the past 15 years, there has been widespread use of multiple-dose insulin regimens using a variety of insulin analogs, administered either by injection or insulin pump therapy, together with medical nutrition therapy, frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose and, more recently, continuous logo glucose monitoring. It is now possible to achieve previously unattainable levels of glycemic control with less risk of severe hypoglycemia, and yet only a minority of patients achieves target hemoglobin A1c values. This review discusses contemporary management of T1D with a focus on health outcomes.
    Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America 09/2010; 39(3):573-93. · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors associated with insulin pump therapy resulting in lower HbA(1c) levels in young people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin pumps were downloaded from 150 youth (81 male), ages 5-20 years. Consecutive insulin pump downloads, 3 months apart, were available for 85 (43 male) of the 150 youth and changes in pump use were correlated with changes (≥0.5%, ≥ 6 mmol/mol) in HbA(1c) levels.   Using cross-sectional data, lower HbA(1c) values correlated with use of more frequent daily insulin boluses (r=-0.46, P<0.0001) and more frequent blood glucose checks/day (r=-0.35, P<0.0001). Young people with HbA(1c) levels <7.5% (58 mmol/mol) vs. values of 7.5-9.0% (58-75 mmol/mol) or ≥ 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) tested blood glucose more frequently/day (P<0.0001), bolused more frequently/day (P<0.0001), reported more grams of carbohydrates eaten/day (P<0.05) and had a higher per cent bolus insulin/day (P<0.05) compared with the ≥9.0% of youth. Using longitudinal data, 48 of 85 patients had a change in HbA(1c) level of ≥0.5% (6 mmol/mol) between downloads (24 improved). Increased bolus insulin (OR=1.15, P=0.03) and time of temporary basal rate use (OR=1.017, P=0.01) predicted ≥0.5% (6 mmol/mol) decrease in HbA(1c) in logistic regression. This study emphasizes the importance of blood glucose testing, of bolus insulin administration and of an increase in the time of temporary basal rate use in relation to improving glycaemic control.
    Diabetic Medicine 10/2010; 27(10):1174-7. · 3.24 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
1 Download
Available from