Insulin pump treatment of childhood type 1 diabetes.

Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, PO Box 208064, New Haven, CT 06520-8064, USA.
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.2). 01/2006; 52(6):1677-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2005.07.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Current goals for the treatment of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus include achieving near-normal blood sugar levels, minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia, optimizing quality of life, and preventing or delaying long-term microvascular complications. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides a treatment option that can assist in the attainment of all of these goals in all ages of children. Usage of CSII has been demonstrated to reduce glycosylated hemoglobin levels and frequency of severe hypoglycemia, without sacrifices in safety, quality of life, or weight gain, particularly in conjunction with the use of new insulin analogs and improvements in pump technology. Clinical studies of safety and efficacy of CSII in children are reviewed.

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    ABSTRACT: The current standard of care for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) employs a system of intensive diabetes management aimed at near-normal glycemia, which reduces the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications. Optimal management is an ongoing process based on a patient-centered collaboration with a primary care clinician and a multidisciplinary diabetes team that provides diabetes management, including education and psychosocial support. Intensive diabetes therapy attempts to mimic physiologic insulin replacement. Over the past 15 years, there has been widespread use of multiple-dose insulin regimens using a variety of insulin analogs, administered either by injection or insulin pump therapy, together with medical nutrition therapy, frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose and, more recently, continuous logo glucose monitoring. It is now possible to achieve previously unattainable levels of glycemic control with less risk of severe hypoglycemia, and yet only a minority of patients achieves target hemoglobin A1c values. This review discusses contemporary management of T1D with a focus on health outcomes.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors associated with insulin pump therapy resulting in lower HbA(1c) levels in young people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin pumps were downloaded from 150 youth (81 male), ages 5-20 years. Consecutive insulin pump downloads, 3 months apart, were available for 85 (43 male) of the 150 youth and changes in pump use were correlated with changes (≥0.5%, ≥ 6 mmol/mol) in HbA(1c) levels.   Using cross-sectional data, lower HbA(1c) values correlated with use of more frequent daily insulin boluses (r=-0.46, P<0.0001) and more frequent blood glucose checks/day (r=-0.35, P<0.0001). Young people with HbA(1c) levels <7.5% (58 mmol/mol) vs. values of 7.5-9.0% (58-75 mmol/mol) or ≥ 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) tested blood glucose more frequently/day (P<0.0001), bolused more frequently/day (P<0.0001), reported more grams of carbohydrates eaten/day (P<0.05) and had a higher per cent bolus insulin/day (P<0.05) compared with the ≥9.0% of youth. Using longitudinal data, 48 of 85 patients had a change in HbA(1c) level of ≥0.5% (6 mmol/mol) between downloads (24 improved). Increased bolus insulin (OR=1.15, P=0.03) and time of temporary basal rate use (OR=1.017, P=0.01) predicted ≥0.5% (6 mmol/mol) decrease in HbA(1c) in logistic regression. This study emphasizes the importance of blood glucose testing, of bolus insulin administration and of an increase in the time of temporary basal rate use in relation to improving glycaemic control.
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