Sterol biosynthesis occurs in the ER and most sterol biosynthetic enzymes have transmembrane domains. However, due to difficulties in characterizing membrane protein-protein interactions, the nature of the sterol biosynthetic complex as well as in vivo interactions between various enzymes have not been described. We employed a split-ubiquitin membrane protein yeast two-hybrid system to characterize interactions between sterol biosynthetic proteins. Fourteen bait constructs were co-transformed into a reporter yeast strain with 14 prey constructs representing all sterol enzymatic reactions beginning with the synthesis of squalene. Our results not only confirmed several previous interactions, but also allowed us to identify novel interactions. Based on these results, ergosterol biosynthetic enzymes display specific protein-protein interactions forming a functional complex we designate, the ergosome. In this complex, Erg11p, Erg25p, Erg27p, and Erg28p appear to form a core center that can interact with other enzymes in the pathway. Also Erg24p and Erg2p, two enzymes that are sensitive to morpholine antifungals, appear to interact with one another; however, the profile of protein interaction partners appears to be unique. Erg2p and Erg3p, two enzymes catalyzing sequential reactions also appear to have different interaction partners. Our results provide a working model as to how sterol biosynthetic enzymes are topologically organized not only in yeast but in plant and animal systems that share many of these biosynthetic reactions.
"Science 287(5458):1615–1622. 48. Mo C, Bard M (2005) A systematic study of yeast sterol biosynthetic protein-protein interactions using the split-ubiquitin system. Biochim Biophys Acta 1737(2) (3):152–160. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bitopic integral membrane proteins with a single transmembrane helix play diverse roles in catalysis, cell signaling, and morphogenesis. Complete monospanning protein structures are needed to show how interaction between the transmembrane helix and catalytic domain might influence association with the membrane and function. We report crystal structures of full-length Saccharomyces cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase, a membrane monospanning cytochrome P450 of the CYP51 family that catalyzes the first postcyclization step in ergosterol biosynthesis and is inhibited by triazole drugs. The structures reveal a well-ordered N-terminal amphipathic helix preceding a putative transmembrane helix that would constrain the catalytic domain orientation to lie partly in the lipid bilayer. The structures locate the substrate lanosterol, identify putative substrate and product channels, and reveal constrained interactions with triazole antifungal drugs that are important for drug design and understanding drug resistance.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; 111(10). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1324245111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
"Despite the consistent amount of information about sterol composition , no gene or enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway has been characterized so far from a glomeromycotan fungus. The sterol biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied in the model organism Saccahromyces cerevisiae where all the genes (the so called ERG genes) have been characterized (Daum et al.,1998; Gachotte et al., 1999; Mo and Bard, 2005). ERG genes exhibit transcriptional regulation in response to mutations in other ERG genes and in response to treatments with fungicides that affect the sterol biosynthetic pathway (Bammert and Fostel, 2000). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sterols are crucial components of eukaryotic membranes that control membrane fluidity and permeability. They play an important role in cell signaling, polarity and sorting. Since many steps in the pathway are essential, sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBI) are widely used as antifungal agents. This work reports the identification and the characterization of a C-4 sterol methyl oxidase (SMO), the first gene involved in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, so far described from an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. The sequence, called GintSMO, shows a primary structure, a hydrophobicity profile and a pattern of histidine-rich motifs which are typical of C-4 methyl sterol oxidases. The complementation assay in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain demonstrates that GintSMO encodes a functional SMO. Changes in GintSMO transcript levels and in the amount of the sterol precursor squalene were observed in in vitro grown extraradical structures exposed to the fenpropimorph SBI fungicide.
"The physical interaction of ERG27p with ERG7p might indeed contribute to yeast sterol biosynthesis regulation . These results altogether suggest that many sterol biosynthetic proteins, if not all, may be tethered to the ER as a large complex , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that primary sequences of enzymes involved in sterol biosynthesis are well conserved in organisms that produce sterols de novo. However, we provide evidence for a preservation of the corresponding genes in two animals unable to synthesize cholesterol (auxotrophs): Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans.
We have been able to detect bona fide orthologs of several ERG genes in both organisms using a series of complementary approaches. We have detected strong sequence divergence between the orthologs of the nematode and of the fruitfly; they are also very divergent with respect to the orthologs in organisms able to synthesize sterols de novo (prototrophs). Interestingly, the orthologs in both the nematode and the fruitfly are still under selective pressure. It is possible that these genes, which are not involved in cholesterol synthesis anymore, have been recruited to perform different new functions. We propose a more parsimonious way to explain their accelerated evolution and subsequent stabilization. The products of ERG genes in prototrophs might be involved in several biological roles, in addition to sterol synthesis. In the case of the nematode and the fruitfly, the relevant genes would have lost their ancestral function in cholesterogenesis but would have retained the other function(s), which keep them under pressure.
By exploiting microarray data we have noticed a strong expressional correlation between the orthologs of ERG24 and ERG25 in D. melanogaster and genes encoding factors involved in intracellular protein trafficking and folding and with Start1 involved in ecdysteroid synthesis. These potential functional connections are worth being explored not only in Drosophila, but also in Caenorhabditis as well as in sterol prototrophs.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(8):e2883. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0002883 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Matthew G Thompson, Michelle Larson, Amy Vidrine, Kelly Barrios, Flor Navarro, Kaitlyn Meyers, Patricia Simms, Kushal Prajapati, Lennox Chitsike, Lance M Hellman, Brian M Baker, Stephanie K Watkins,
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