Occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis in hairdressers
ABSTRACT Hairdressers are at risk for occupational respiratory diseases, but the risk factors, causal agents, and underlying mechanisms are not completely defined.
To describe the features of a large group of hairdressers consecutively referred to our center for suspected occupational asthma (OA) over an 8-year period, the type of occupational respiratory diseases, the etiologic agents, and the diagnostic tests.
Forty-seven hairdressers (mean age, 25 years; range, 17 to 52 years) were studied. On the basis of the response to the specific inhalation challenge (SIC), 24 patients received a diagnosis of OA (51.1%), which was due to persulfate salts in 21 patients (87.5%), permanent hair dyes in 2 patients (8.3%), and latex in 1 patient (4.2%). Thirteen of these 24 patients (54.2%) also received a diagnosis of occupational rhinitis, which was due to persulfate salts in 11 patients (84.6%) and to paraphenylenediamine in two patients (15.4%). Patients with persulfate asthma had a long period of exposure to bleaching agents, a long latent period between the start of exposure and the onset of symptoms, and a prevalent eosinophilic airway inflammation in induced sputum. The skin-prick test with ammonium persulfate performed in a subset of patients gave negative results
In the present study, we confirmed that persulfate salts are the major agents involved in OA and occupational rhinitis in hairdressers. The positive response to the SIC in only a part of the population of symptomatic exposed workers, the period between the starting of exposure and the onset of symptoms, the type of response to the SIC, and the high frequency of association of asthma with other diseases such as dermatitis and rhinitis suggest an immunologic mechanism that remains to be elucidated.
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ABSTRACT: To review the recent literature on risk factors for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with an emphasis on genetic, comorbid diseases and environmental factors associated with CRS. Through identifying potential risk factors for CRS, we aim to glean insights into the underlying pathogenic mechanisms essential for developing effective therapeutic strategies. Recent findings demonstrate that genetics and comorbid medical conditions including airway diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and various demographic and environmental factors are associated with having a CRS diagnosis. Limitations of current studies include variable application of disease definitions, lack of prospective longitudinal studies and a disproportionate focus on tertiary care populations. CRS has a broad spectrum of associations ranging from genetics to comorbid diseases and environmental factors. These predisposing factors may provide valuable information for possible designing of therapeutic and preventive interventions. However, to better understand whether these associations cause CRS, further studies are needed to independently replicate findings, establish temporal relationships between exposure and disease onset, evaluate the influence of exposure dose on disease severity, and to understand the biological effects of these risk factors in the context of CRS.Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 12/2014; 15(1). DOI:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000128 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hairdressers have an increased risk for developing airway symptoms e.g. asthma and rhinitis. Persulfates, which are oxidizing agents in bleaching powder, are considered important causal agents for these symptoms. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The aim was therefore to measure proteomic changes in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from persulfate-challenged subjects to identify proteins potentially involved in the pathogenesis of bleaching powder-associated rhinitis and/or candidate effect biomarkers for persulfate. Also, oxidized peptides were measured to evaluate their usefulness as biomarkers for persulfate exposure and/or effect e.g oxidative stress. Samples from hairdressers with and without bleaching powder-associated rhinitis were analyzed with LC-MS/MS using SRM to target 246 proteins and five oxidized peptides. Pathway analysis was applied to obtain a functional overview of the proteins. Several proteins involved in biologically meaningful pathways, functions or disorders e.g. inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, epithelium integrity and dermatological disorders, changed after the persulfate-challenge. A list with nine proteins that appeared to be affected by the persulfate challenge and should be followed up was defined. An albumin peptide containing oxidized tryptophan increased 2h and 5h after the challenge but not after 20 min indicating that such peptides may be useful as oxidative stress biomarkers.Journal of Proteome Research 12/2014; DOI:10.1021/pr5009306 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Since persulfate salts are an important cause of occupational asthma (OA), we aimed to study the persistence of respiratory symptoms after a single exposure to ammonium persulfate (AP) in AP-sensitized mice. Material and Methods BALB/c mice received dermal applications of AP or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on days 1 and 8. On day 15, they received a single nasal instillation of AP or saline. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was assessed using methacholine provocation, while pulmonary inflammation was evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG1 and IgG2a were measured in blood at 1, 4, 8, 24 hours and 4, 8, 15 days after the single exposure to the causal agent. Histological studies of lungs were assessed. Results AP-treated mice showed a sustained increase in AHR, lasting up to 4 days after the challenge. There was a significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils 8 hours after the challenge, which persisted for 24 hours in AP-treated mice. The extent of airway inflammation was also seen in the histological analysis of the lungs from challenged mice. Slight increases in total serum IgE 4 days after the challenge were found, while IgG gradually increased further 4 to 15 days after the AP challenge in AP-sensitized mice. Conclusions In AP-sensitized mice, an Ig-independent response is induced after AP challenge. AHR appears immediately, but airway neutrophil inflammation appears later. This response decreases in time; at early stages only respiratory and inflammatory responses decrease, but later on immunological response decreases as well.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109000. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109000 · 3.53 Impact Factor