Hairdressers are at risk for occupational respiratory diseases, but the risk factors, causal agents, and underlying mechanisms are not completely defined.
To describe the features of a large group of hairdressers consecutively referred to our center for suspected occupational asthma (OA) over an 8-year period, the type of occupational respiratory diseases, the etiologic agents, and the diagnostic tests.
Forty-seven hairdressers (mean age, 25 years; range, 17 to 52 years) were studied. On the basis of the response to the specific inhalation challenge (SIC), 24 patients received a diagnosis of OA (51.1%), which was due to persulfate salts in 21 patients (87.5%), permanent hair dyes in 2 patients (8.3%), and latex in 1 patient (4.2%). Thirteen of these 24 patients (54.2%) also received a diagnosis of occupational rhinitis, which was due to persulfate salts in 11 patients (84.6%) and to paraphenylenediamine in two patients (15.4%). Patients with persulfate asthma had a long period of exposure to bleaching agents, a long latent period between the start of exposure and the onset of symptoms, and a prevalent eosinophilic airway inflammation in induced sputum. The skin-prick test with ammonium persulfate performed in a subset of patients gave negative results
In the present study, we confirmed that persulfate salts are the major agents involved in OA and occupational rhinitis in hairdressers. The positive response to the SIC in only a part of the population of symptomatic exposed workers, the period between the starting of exposure and the onset of symptoms, the type of response to the SIC, and the high frequency of association of asthma with other diseases such as dermatitis and rhinitis suggest an immunologic mechanism that remains to be elucidated.
"In certain studies, it was demonstrated that major agents that caused occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis in hairdressers were persulphate salts. Hairdressers are at risk in respect of occupational respiratory diseases; however, risk factors, causing agents, and underlining mechanisms could not be defined exactly [22–24]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: and Aim
. It was observed that occupation and smoking increased each other’s effects on the development of airway diseases. We aimed to search the relationship between respiratory symptoms, smoking, and occupation.
Materials and Methods
. 225 employees in Düzce, Turkey, were applied a survey questioning respiratory complaints, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and cotinine measurements in urine.
. Cough (26.7%), phlegm (30.7%), and chest tightness (21.3%) were encountered more in carpenters compared to other groups and phlegm was statistically higher at significant level compared to other groups. The complaints of cough (30.4%), phlegm (27.4%), and chest tightness (21.5%) were significantly higher in individuals whose cotinine level was above 500 ng/mL and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, maximum midexpiratory flow rate (MMFR) values were significantly lower. Dyspnea complaint of auto painters whose cotinine level was below 500 ng/mL was significantly higher and also expected MMFR% value of this group was significantly lower compared to other groups. While age had independent effect on respiratory function tests, type of the job was found to be independently effective on MMFR.
. Smoking increases respiratory complaints of employees. In auto painters, the occupation causes airway disease regardless of smoking.
"Environmental stimulants, including indoor allergens, can affect the development of allergic responses . Indoor allergens involved in this process can include arthropod allergens, mammalian allergens, fungal allergens, and also occupational allergens    . Occupational asthma and allergic rhinitis are common respiratory diseases in industrialized countries . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW) and health care workers (HCW).
The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc.) during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated.
579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males) participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic) rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P < 0.001). Cumulative asthma was significantly higher only in the HCW group (P < 0.05). In addition, the HCW and KW groups had significantly higher risks of ≥2/year URTI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07-2.38 versus OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.38) than the general population.
Occupational allergic respiratory diseases are an important and growing health issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.
11/2013; 2013(4, part 1):285420. DOI:10.1155/2013/285420
"Specific challenge to persulphate has been suggested as an useful tool in diagnosis of occupational asthma in hairdressers (Muñoz et al. 2004). However, specific IgE antibodies against persulphates are seldom found (Parra et al. 1992) and another immunologic mechanism not yet elucidated has been suggested (Moscato et al. 2005; Muñoz et al. 2004). Furthermore, the clinical picture is quite complex as hairdressers reacting to bleaching powder very often complain of symptoms associated with exposure to other hairdressers chemicals. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Hairdressers often complain of work-related rhinitis (WR). They are infrequently sensitized to persulphates. The cause and mechanism of the symptoms and the effects on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains unclear. The objectives were to follow female hairdressers with WR mainly from bleaching powder regarding nasal reactivity to persulphate and to evaluate symptoms, HRQoL and inflammatory markers in nasal lavage during a working period after vacation and compared with hairdressers without symptoms and pollen allergic women.
Skin prick tests to persulphate were performed in the hairdressers. Participants kept a diary of symptoms and of work tasks (hairdressers only). They completed HRQoL questionnaires. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage fluid was examined. The symptomatic hairdressers performed nasal challenges with persulphate before and after the exposure.
Skin prick tests were negative. Although the nasal reactivity to persulphate did not change a steady increase in nasal symptoms, especially blockage, and in ECP was noticed in the symptomatic hairdressers. The HRQoL deteriorated in the symptomatic hairdressers indicating an effect on their working situation and daily life. The atopics had more, but varying symptoms (itching, sneezing and secretion).
The difference in the clinical picture between the symptomatic hairdressers and the pollen allergic women, the increase in symptoms and ECP in the nasal lavage support the view that a sensitization to hairdresser chemicals by a mechanism not yet understood is operating. The deterioration of the HRQoL in the symptomatic hairdressers indicates a considerable effect on their life.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 12/2012; 87(1). DOI:10.1007/s00420-012-0835-8 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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