Pende D, Castriconi R, Romagnani P, Spaggiari GM, Marcenaro S, Dondero A et al.. Expression of the DNAM-1 ligands, Nectin-2 (CD112) and poliovirus receptor (CD155), on dendritic cells: relevance for natural killer-dendritic cell interaction. Blood 107: 2030-2036

University of Florence, Florens, Tuscany, Italy
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 04/2006; 107(5):2030-6. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2005-07-2696
Source: PubMed


In this study, we demonstrate the involvement of DNAM-1-triggering receptor and its ligands, poliovirus receptor (PVR) and Nectin-2, in natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis of dendritic cells (DCs). The surface expression of both ligands was up-regulated in DCs as compared to monocytes. It reached maximal densities after DC maturation induced by different stimuli including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, flagellin, and CD40L. Both immunohistochemical analysis and confocal microscopy revealed expression of DNAM-1 ligands by DCs in lymph nodes in which they were localized in the parafollicular T-cell region and surrounded the high endothelial venules. Remarkably, in cytolytic assays, DNAM-1 cooperated with NKp30 in the NK-mediated killing of both immature and mature DCs and the degree of contribution of DNAM-1 appeared to correlate with the surface densities of its specific ligands PVR and Nectin-2.

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    • "We can speculate that cellular interactions and signals provided to DNAM-1 À and DNAM-1 + NK cells might be different, ultimately leading to functional divergence. Indeed, DNAM-1 at the cell surface of lymphocytes constantly interacts with its ligands expressed on DCs (Seth et al., 2011), and the absence of this receptor has been shown to negatively impact NK cell and DC crosstalk (Pende et al., 2006; Ramsbottom et al., 2014; Shibuya et al., 1996). The absence of DNAM-1 on NK cells may therefore limit their access to homeostatic DC-derived signals including IL-15 (Lucas et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells comprise a heterogeneous population of cells important for pathogen defense and cancer surveillance. However, the functional significance of this diversity is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate through transcriptional profiling and functional studies that the activating receptor DNAM-1 (CD226) identifies two distinct NK cell functional subsets: DNAM-1(+) and DNAM-1(-) NK cells. DNAM-1(+) NK cells produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines, have enhanced interleukin 15 signaling, and proliferate vigorously. By contrast, DNAM-1(-) NK cells that differentiate from DNAM-1(+) NK cells have greater expression of NK-cell-receptor-related genes and are higher producers of MIP1 chemokines. Collectively, our data reveal the existence of a functional program of NK cell maturation marked by DNAM-1 expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Cell Reports 03/2015; 11(1). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.03.006 · 8.36 Impact Factor
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    • "NK cells are presently known to represent long-lived innate cells, whose functional spectrum extends beyond classical search-and-destroy patrolling activity and/or early recruitment of immune responses. NK cell function indeed also includes regulation of other innate and adaptive functions through their direct or indirect reciprocal interaction (crosstalk) with macrophages, polymorphonuclear cells (6, 7), fibroblasts (8), DC (9–11), and T cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cell function is regulated by a balance between the triggering of activating and inhibitory receptors expressed on their surface. A relevant effort has been focused so far on the study of KIR carriage/expression setting the basis for NK cell education and self-tolerance. Focus on the evolution and regulation of activating NK receptors has lagged behind so far. Our understanding of activating receptor expression and regulation has recently improved by evidences derived from in vitro and in vivo studies. Virus infection - either acute or chronic - determines preferential expansion of NK cells with specific phenotype, activating receptors, and with recall-like functional activity. Studies on patients with viral infection (HIV and HCV) and specific diverging clinical courses confirm that inter-individual differences may exist in baseline expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp46 and NKp30). The findings that patients with divergent clinical courses have different kinetics of activating receptor density expression upon NK cell activation in vitro provide an additional, time-dependent, functional parameter. Kinetic changes in receptor expression thus represent an additional parameter to basal receptor density expression. Different expression and inducibilities of activating receptors on NK cells contribute to the high diversity of NK cell populations and may help our understanding of the inter-individual differences in innate responses that underlie divergent disease courses.
    Frontiers in Immunology 07/2014; 5:305. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00305
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    • "Moreover, modulation of PVR surface expression might occur during infections. Different pathogen-derived stimuli such as LPS, poly I:C, and flagellin upregulated the surface expression of PVR (and nectin-2) in human DC (54) and in murine antigen-presenting cells (55) via the MYD88 and TRIF pathways. It has also been shown that expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr protein increases PVR levels in Jurkat T cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood and arises from developing sympathetic nervous system. Most primary tumors localize in the abdomen, the adrenal gland, or lumbar sympathetic ganglia. Amplification in tumor cells of MYCN, the major oncogenic driver, patients' age over 18 months, and the presence at diagnosis of a metastatic disease (stage IV, M) identify NB at high risk of treatment failure. Conventional therapies did not significantly improve the overall survival of these patients. Moreover, the limited landscape of somatic mutations detected in NB is hampering the development of novel pharmacological approaches. Major efforts aim to identify novel NB-associated surface molecules that activate immune responses and/or direct drugs to tumor cells and tumor-associated vessels. PVR (Poliovirus Receptor) and B7-H3 are promising targets, since they are expressed by most high-risk NB, are upregulated in tumor vasculature and are essential for tumor survival/invasiveness. PVR is a ligand of DNAM-1 activating receptor that triggers the cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against NB. In animal models, targeting of PVR with an attenuated oncolytic poliovirus induced tumor regression and elimination. Also B7-H3 was successfully targeted in preclinical studies and is now being tested in phase I/II clinical trials. B7-H3 down-regulates NK cytotoxicity, providing NB with a mechanism of escape from immune response. The immunosuppressive potential of NB can be enhanced by the release of soluble factors that impair NK cell function and/or recruitment. Among these, TGF-β1 modulates the cytotoxicity receptors and the chemokine receptor repertoire of NK cells. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the main cell surface molecules and soluble mediators that modulate the function of NK cells in NB, considering the pros and cons that must be taken into account in the design of novel NK cell-based immunotherapeutic approaches.
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