OP-9 cells are stromal cells derived from macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-deficient osteopetrotic mice. To evaluate the OP-9 capability to sustain long-term hematopoiesis, we reported the expansion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized human peripheral blood (PB) CD34(+) cells in co-culture with murine OP-9 and MS-5 stromal cells, either transfected with various combinations of adenovectors (Ad) expressing c-kit ligand (KL) (either soluble or transmembrane form), thrombopoietin (TPO), flt-3/flk2 ligand (FL), and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF or with weekly addition of these cytokines. Expression of TPO as well as association of TPO, FL, and KL increased progenitor cell and week-6 cobblestone area forming cell (CAFC) production in all stromal co-cultures. Similar progenitor expansion was obtained by weekly addition of soluble cytokine. Five weeks of co-culture with OP9 and TPO, FL + KL resulted in the greatest expansion of progenitor cells and week-6 CAFC as measured by secondary assay on MS-5. In contrast to MS-5 and TPO or TPO + FL + KL cultures where hematopoiesis declined by week 4, progenitor as well as week-6 CAFC expansion continued for over 3 months in TPO + FL + KL OP9 cocultures. This was associated with decrease of CD14(+) macrophage production. The addition of human macrophage (M)-CSF or CD14(+) cells to the co-culture decrease progenitor and stem cell expansion; however, murine M-CSF to OP-9 co-cultures did not decrease progenitor expansion. High levels of stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) production by MS-5 and low or absent production by OP-9 may account for stem cell adhesion and CAFC formation in the former cultures and the predominance of stem and progenitor cells in the nonadherent fraction in the latter cultures.
"For example, cytokines that activate STAT5 in the most immature human hematopoietic stem compartment include SCF7 and TPO.8 These cytokines have been shown to promote long-term hematopoiesis in vitro,9 and hypersensitivity to TPO in Lnk−/− mice resulted in elevated stem cell self-renewal, which coincided with increased levels of STAT5 activity.10 Within the erythroid compartment, STAT5 is activated by EPO,11 where STAT5 fulfills an important anti-apoptotic role by upregulating Bcl-Xl,12-15 although a more direct role in initiating erythroid commitment might exist as well.16-18 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The level of transcription factor activity critically regulates cell fate decisions such as hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. The balance between hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation needs to be tightly controlled, as a shift toward differentiation might exhaust the stem cell pool, while a shift toward self-renewal might mark the onset of leukemic transformation. A number of transcription factors have been proposed to be critically involved in governing stem cell fate and lineage commitment, such as Hox transcription factors, c-Myc, Notch1, β-catenin, C/ebpα, Pu.1 and STAT5. It is therefore no surprise that dysregulation of these transcription factors can also contribute to the development of leukemias. This review will discuss the role of STAT5 in both normal and leukemic hematopoietic stem cells as well as mechanisms by which STAT5 might contribute to the development of human leukemias.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) readily form embryoid bodies (EBs) that exhibit hematopoietic differentiation. Methods based on EB formation or ESC coculture with murine bone marrow stromal cell lines have revealed pathways of both primitive and definitive hematopoietic differentiation progressing from primitive mesoderm via hemangioblasts to endothelium and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. The addition of specific hematopoietic growth factors and morphogens to these cultures enhances the generation of neutrophils, macrophages, megakaryocyte/platelets, and hemoglobinized mature red cells. In addition, selective culture systems have been developed to support differentiation into mature T lymphocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. In most cases, culture systems have been developed that support equivalent differentiation of various human ESC (hESC). The major obstacle to translation of ESC hematopoietic cultures to clinical relevance has been the general inability to produce hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that can engraft adult, irradiated recipients. In this context, the pattern of ES hematopoietic development mirrors the yolk sac phase of hematopoiesis that precedes the appearance of engraftable HSC in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. Genetic manipulation of mESC hematopoietic progeny by upregulation of HOXB4 or STAT5 has led to greatly enhanced long- or short-term multilineage hematopoietic engraftment, suggesting that genetic or epigenetic manipulation of these pathways may lead to functional HSC generation from hESC.
Methods in Enzymology 02/2006; 418:208-42. DOI:10.1016/S0076-6879(06)18013-1 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progress toward clinical application of ESC-derived hematopoietic cellular transplantation will require rigorous evaluation in a large animal allogeneic model. However, in contrast to human ESCs (hESCs), efforts to induce conclusive hematopoietic differentiation from rhesus macaque ESCs (rESCs) have been unsuccessful. Characterizing these poorly understood functional differences will facilitate progress in this area and likely clarify the critical steps involved in the hematopoietic differentiation of ESCs. To accomplish this goal, we compared the hematopoietic differentiation of hESCs with that of rESCs in both EB culture and stroma coculture. Initially, undifferentiated rESCs and hESCs were adapted to growth on Matrigel without a change in their phenotype or karyotype. Subsequent differentiation of rESCs in OP9 stroma led to the development of CD34(+)CD45(-) cells that gave rise to endothelial cell networks in methylcellulose culture. In the same conditions, hESCs exhibited convincing hematopoietic differentiation. In cytokine-supplemented EB culture, rESCs demonstrated improved hematopoietic differentiation with higher levels of CD34(+) and detectable levels of CD45(+) cells. However, these levels remained dramatically lower than those for hESCs in identical culture conditions. Subsequent plating of cytokine-supplemented rhesus EBs in methylcellulose culture led to the formation of mixed colonies of erythroid, myeloid, and endothelial cells, confirming the existence of bipotential hematoendothelial progenitors in the cytokine-supplemented EB cultures. Evaluation of four different rESC lines confirmed the validity of these disparities. Although rESCs have the potential for hematopoietic differentiation, they exhibit a pause at the hemangioblast stage of hematopoietic development in culture conditions developed for hESCs.
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