Functional outcome scales in traumatic brain injury: a comparison of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (Extended) and the Functional Status Examination.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9055, USA.
Journal of Neurotrauma (Impact Factor: 3.97). 12/2005; 22(11):1319-26. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2005.22.1319
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clinical trials aimed at developing therapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI) require outcome measures that are reliable, validated, and easily administered. The most widely used of these measures, the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and the GOS-Extended (GOS-E), have been criticized as suffering from ceiling effects. In an attempt to develop a more useful and dynamic outcome measure, the Functional Status Examination (FSE) was developed, which grades outcome across 10 functional domains. The FSE has been demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive in monitoring recovery after TBI. This manuscript compares FSE with GOS-E in a cohort of patients with a wide range of injury severities. 177 individuals who survived at least 6 months after TBI were studied. The FSE and GOS-E were administered 6-12 months after injury. FSE and GOS-E scores correlated well with each other. FSE scores were distributed throughout the range, indicating that ceiling and floor effects were not present. Physiologic measures of injury severity (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS]) did not correlate with anatomic measures (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] and Injury Severity Score [ISS]). GCS correlated weakly with both outcome measures, but AIS/ISS did not. We conclude that FSE and GOS-E are reliable outcome measures for TBI survivors, and FSE may offer some advantages over GOS-E due its ability to provide a more detailed description of deficits. The majority of the variance in outcome is not accounted for by currently available measures of injury severity.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Ruptured intracranial aneurysm (ICA) with bleb formation (RICABF) is a special type of ruptured ICA. However, the exact role and effectiveness of endovascular coil embolization (ECE) in RICABF is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ECE of aneurysm neck for RICABF treatment. Material and Methods We retrospectively assessed consecutive patients who were hospitalized in our endovascular intervention center between October 2004 and May 2012. Overall, 86 patients underwent ECE of aneurysm neck for 86 RICABF. Treatments outcomes included secondary rupture/bleeding rate, aneurysm neck embolization rate, residual/recurrent aneurysm, intraoperative incidents, and post-embolization complications, as well as improvements in the Glasgow outcome scale (extended) (GOS-E). Results Complete occlusion was achieved in 72 aneurysms (72/86, 83.7%), while 12 aneurysms (12/86, 14.0%) had a residual neck, and 2 aneurysms (2/86, 2.3%) had a residual aneurysm. The postoperative GOS-E was 3 in 3 patients (3.5%), 4 in 10 patients (11.6%), and 5 in 73 patients (84.9%). Follow-up angiography was performed in all patients (mean 9.0 months, interquartile range of 9.0). Recurrence was found in 3 patients (3/86, 3.5%). No aneurysm rupture or bleeding was reported. Conclusions Our mid-term follow-up study showed that ECE of aneurysm neck was an effective and safe treatment modality for RICABF. The long-term effectiveness and safety of this interventional radiology technique need to be investigated in prospective and comparative studies.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 07/2014; 20:1121-8. DOI:10.12659/MSM.890272 · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gist reasoning (abstracting meaning from complex information) was compared between adults with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI, n = 30) at least one year post injury and healthy adults (n = 40). The study also examined the contribution of executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and switching) and memory (immediate recall and memory for facts) to gist reasoning. The correspondence between gist reasoning and daily function was also examined in the TBI group. Results indicated that the TBI group performed significantly lower than the control group on gist reasoning, even after adjusting for executive functions and memory. Executive function composite was positively associated with gist reasoning (p < .001). Additionally, performance on gist reasoning significantly predicted daily function in the TBI group beyond the predictive ability of executive function alone (p = .011). Synthesizing and abstracting meaning(s) from information (i.e., gist reasoning) could provide an informative index into higher order cognition and daily functionality.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 01/2015; 37(2):1-10. DOI:10.1080/13803395.2014.994478 · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Primary objective: Cerebral oedema is a common complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The use of Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) imaging in combination with Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) has the potential to distinguish between cytotoxic and vasogenic oedema. This study hypothesized a significant relationship between cytotoxic lesion volume and outcome. Research design: This observational study reports on a convenience sample where MRI was obtained for clinical purposes. Methods and procedures: Clinical post-TBI FLAIR and DWI images were analysed. For this study, lesions were defined as primarily cytotoxic oedema if the ratio of FLAIR to DWI lesion volume was comparable, defined as a ratio <2. If the ratio of FLAIR to DWI lesion volume was ≥2, oedema was considered predominantly of vasogenic origin. Main outcomes and results: The sample consisted primarily of males with TBIs whose injury severity ranged from complicated mild to severe. Analysis revealed that both oedema types are common after TBI and both are associated with functional deficits 6 months after injury. Conclusions: Acute MRI may be useful to assess pathology at the tissue after traumatic brain injury. Clinical trials targeting cytotoxic and vasogenic mechanisms of oedema formation may benefit from using DWI and FLAIR MRI as a means to differentiate the predominant oedema type after TBI.
    Brain Injury 07/2014; 28(12):1-8. DOI:10.3109/02699052.2014.936039 · 1.86 Impact Factor