Manual therapy and exercise have not previously been compared with a home exercise program for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between a home-based physical therapy program and a clinically based physical therapy program.
One hundred thirty-four subjects with OA of the knee were randomly assigned to a clinic treatment group (n=66; 61% female, 39% male; mean age [+/-SD]=64+/-10 years) or a home exercise group (n=68, 71% female, 29% male; mean age [+/-SD]=62+/-9 years).
Subjects in the clinic treatment group received supervised exercise, individualized manual therapy, and a home exercise program over a 4-week period. Subjects in the home exercise group received the same home exercise program initially, reinforced at a clinic visit 2 weeks later. Measured outcomes were the distance walked in 6 minutes and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC).
Both groups showed clinically and statistically significant improvements in 6-minute walk distances and WOMAC scores at 4 weeks; improvements were still evident in both groups at 8 weeks. By 4 weeks, WOMAC scores had improved by 52% in the clinic treatment group and by 26% in the home exercise group. Average 6-minute walk distances had improved about 10% in both groups. At 1 year, both groups were substantially and about equally improved over baseline measurements. Subjects in the clinic treatment group were less likely to be taking medications for their arthritis and were more satisfied with the overall outcome of their rehabilitative treatment compared with subjects in the home exercise group.
Although both groups improved by 1 month, subjects in the clinic treatment group achieved about twice as much improvement in WOMAC scores than subjects who performed similar unsupervised exercises at home. Equivalent maintenance of improvements at 1 year was presumably due to both groups continuing the identical home exercise program. The results indicate that a home exercise program for patients with OA of the knee provides important benefit. Adding a small number of additional clinical visits for the application of manual therapy and supervised exercise adds greater symptomatic relief.
"Participants randomized to the Physical Therapy regimen receive a musculoskeletal examination consistent with contemporary Physical Therapy practice
. The Physical Therapy intervention takes place at either the hospital or a specific community therapy clinic. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundKnee osteoarthritis (OA) causes pain and long-term disability with annual healthcare costs exceeding $185 billion in the United States. Few medical remedies effectively influence the course of the disease. Finding effective treatments to maintain function and quality of life in patients with knee OA is one of the national priorities identified by the Institute of Medicine. We are currently conducting the first comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus a physical-therapy regimen in a sample of patients with symptomatic and radiographically confirmed knee OA. This article describes the design and conduct of this trial.Methods/DesignA single-center, 52-week, comparative effectiveness randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi versus a standardized physical-therapy regimen is being conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. The study population consists of adults ≥ 40 years of age with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA (American College of Rheumatology criteria). Participants are randomly allocated to either 12 weeks of Tai Chi (2x/week) or Physical Therapy (2x/week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of rigorously monitored home exercise). The primary outcome measure is pain (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities WOMAC) subscale at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include WOMAC stkiffness and function domain scores, lower extremity strength and power, functional balance, physical performance tests, psychological and psychosocial functioning, durability effects, health related quality of life, and healthcare utilization at 12, 24 and 52 weeks.DiscussionThis study will be the first randomized comparative-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness trial of Tai Chi versus Physical Therapy in a large symptomatic knee OA population with long-term follow up. We present here a robust and well-designed randomized comparative-effectiveness trial that also explores multiple outcomes to elucidate the potential mechanisms of mind-body effect for a major disabling disease with substantial health burdens and economic costs. Results of this study are expected to have important public health implications for the large and growing population with knee OA.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier:
NCT01258985Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-333) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2014; 14(1):333. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-333 · 2.02 Impact Factor
"While the pharmacological agents often recommended for the management of knee OA include acetaminophen, oral and topical Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), tramadol and intra articular corticosteroid injections, non-pharmacological modalities include instruction in joint protection techniques, provision of assistive devices, use of thermal modalities and therapeutic exercises.15 Within the arrays of non-pharmacological modalities used for the management of OA, there is strong evidence for the benefits of exercise in relieving pain and improving functional status in patients with knee OA.161718 A local strengthening exercise programme of the quadriceps femoris can significantly improve pain status and reduce disability level with accompanying improvement in proprioception and balance in patients with knee OA.19 Also, exercise therapy in conjunction with standardised analgesic has been advocated as a viable and effective first choice approach in the management of knee OA.20 Further, a combination of supervised range of motion strengthening exercise and supervised bicycle ergometry21 and dynamic or resistance exercise22 have been found to improve functional ability and reduce knee joint pain in patients with knee OA. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a risk factor for progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and high body mass index (BMI) may interfere with treatment effectiveness on pain and function in individuals with knee OA. This study investigated the effects of BMI on pain and function during a four-week exercise programme in patients with knee OA.
Forty-six (31 women and 15 men) participants with knee OA of different BMI categories (15 normal weight participants, 13 over weight participants and 18 obese participants), received standardised exercise therapy programme twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome included a 10-point pain rating scale for pain-intensity and the western Ontario and McMaster university osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) for physical function.
Two-way repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) on pain assessment score revealed a significant effect of time (F = 1049.401, P < 0.001) and group (F = 9.393, P < 0.001) on pain. Similar significant effect of time (F = 595.744, P < 0.001) and group (F = 5.431, P = 0.008) was obtained for WOMAC score on function. Post hoc analysis revealed significant difference between the normal weight and overweight group (t = 2.472, P = 0.016) and between normal weight and obese group (t = 3.893, P = 0.005) on pain outcome at the 4(th) week post treatment. No significant difference was found at 4(th) week post treatment on WOMAC scores (F = 2.010, P = 0.146).
Exercise improved pain and function scores in OA patients across the BMI groups. Overweight independent of obesity may interfere with effectiveness of pain control during the symptomatic treatment of knee OA patients.
Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association 07/2013; 54(4):230-5. DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.119610
"Treatment success will be defined as ≥36% improvement in WOMAC score, and treatment failure by a change <36% in WOMAC score or a missing value .The 100 mm pain VAS on walking is used to evaluate the severity of pain. The patient will be asked to walk 15 m in a straight line and to determine his/her level of pain from 0 mm (absence of pain) to 100 mm (worst pain imaginable).The 6-minute walk test, which measures the distance a person can walk in 6 minutes, has been found to reliably measure functional exercise capacity and has been frequently used in OA-related trials [35,36]. For IGA and PGA, the oriental medicine doctor and the patient, respectively, will evaluate general improvements in OA pain-related symptoms, using a five-grade scale: excellent, good, fair, poor and aggravated. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acupuncture is an effective yet complex therapy, integrating syndrome differentiation, selection of appropriate acupoints and skillful needling techniques. Clinicians carefully tailor acupuncture treatment to each patient. However, most clinical trials of acupuncture have been based on a standardized formula of points for every patient without properly accounting for individualdifferences and, as a result, have not been reflective of the true efficacy of clinical practice. To determine the efficacy of meridian-based syndrome differentiation and Sa-am acupuncture, we have designed a simple pragmatic trial providing individualized treatments while working within a general framework.
The study is designed to be a parallel, patient- and assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). A total of250 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) will be recruited from two independent hospitals, Semyung University Oriental Medicine Hospital in Chung-ju and Dongguk University Oriental Hospital in Ilsan, South Korea. Patients will be randomly allocated into four treatment groups: 1. individualized, meridian-based syndrome differentiation and Sa-am acupuncture treatment;2. standard acupuncture treatment;3. sham acupuncture treatment; and 4. no acupuncture treatment. Patients in groups 1 to 3 will be treated by certified oriental medicine doctors twice a week for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the self-reported total Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score change. The trial will also include secondary outcome measures.
This trial is designed to determine the efficacy of individualized acupuncture treatment in patients with knee OA by comparing the differences between individualized, standard, sham and no acupuncture treatments. The results of this trial may validate the efficacy of individualized acupuncture therapy, encouraging its widespread use.
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