Characterization and screening of bacteria from rhizosphere of maize grown in Indonesian and Pakistani soils.
ABSTRACT Thirty rhizobacteria isolated from maize grown in Pakistani and Indonesian soils were evaluated for their morphological characteristics, nitrogen fixation, P-solubilization, indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores production. Nitrogenase activity was detected in nineteen isolates ranging from 21.8-3624 n moles C2H4 produced/h/mg protein. Most of the isolates produced IAA, ten were capable of siderophore production while four were P-solubilizers. Ultrastructural studies of Pseudomonas sp. F14 indicated characteristic rhizospheric colonization within 48 h that was observed to change considerably with the passage of time from few bacteria to micro colonies. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 30 bacterial strains using 30 oligonucleotide primers resulted in considerable level of genetic diversity, with genetic distance ranging from 2-16%. Indonesian isolates were found to be more diverse as compared to Pakistani isolates. The characterization and screening of rhizobacteria of maize rhizosphere has helped in selection of isolates F7, LS-1, 3.1.1.C, F2, F3 and F13 as superior strains for use as bioinoculant. Moreover isolate F14 identified, as Pseudomonas fulgida by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis is a novel strain regarding its tremendous potentials for inoculum production to enhance the yield of maize.
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ABSTRACT: Rhizobia are used exclusively in agricultural systems for enhancing the ability of legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Knowledge about the indigenous population is necessary for the selection and application of inoculant strains. In this study, we have assessed the genetic diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains isolated from the host plant, Arachis hypogaea along the coastline of Tamil Nadu. Different populations collected from varying environmental conditions were analysed for salt and pH tolerance. Genetic diversity among the strains was studied using RAPD markers and PCR-RFLP of 16S rDNA and nifD genes. The approaches used in this study yielded consistent results, which revealed a high degree of heterogeneity among strains and detection of two distinct genetic groups.Canadian Journal of Microbiology 03/2001; 47(2):118-22. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A low-viscosity embedding medium based on ERL-4206 is recommended for use in electron microscopy. The composition is: ERL-4206 (vinyl cyclohexene dioxide) 10 g, D.E.R. 736 (diglycidyl ether of polypropylene glycol) 6 g, NSA (nonenyl succinic anhydride) 26 g, and S-1 (dimethylaminoethanol or DMAE) 0.4 g. The medium is easily and rapidly prepared by dispensing the components, in turn by weight, into a single flask. The relatively low viscosity of the medium (60 cP) permits rapid mixing by shaking and swirling. The medium is infiltrated into specimens after the use of any one of several dehydrating fluids, such as ethanol, acetone, dioxan, hexylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene oxide, and tert.-butyl alcohol. It is compatible with each of these in all proportions. After infiltration the castings are polymerized at 70°C in 8 hours. Longer curing does not adversely affect the physical properties of the castings. Curing time can be reduced by increasing the temperature or the accelerator, S-1, or both; and the hardness of the castings is controlled by changes in the D.E.R. 736 flexibilizer. The medium has a long pot life of several days and infiltrates readily because of its low viscosity. The castings have good trimming and sectioning qualities. The embedding matrix of the sections is very resistant to oxidation by KMnO4 and Ba(MnO4)2, compared with resins containing NADIC methyl anhydride. Sections are tough under the electron beam and may be used without a supporting membrane on the grids. The background plastic in the sections shows no perceptible substructure at magnifications commonly used for biological materials. The medium has been used successfully with a wide range of specimens, including endosperms with a high lipid content, tissues with hard, lignified cell walls, and highly vacuolated parenchymatous tissues of ripe fruits.Journal of Ultrastructure Research 02/1969; 26(1):31-43.
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ABSTRACT: Since 1922 when Wu proposed the use of the Folin phenol reagent for the measurement of proteins (l), a number of modified analytical pro- cedures ut.ilizing this reagent have been reported for the determination of proteins in serum (2-G), in antigen-antibody precipitates (7-9), and in insulin (10). Although the reagent would seem to be recommended by its great sen- sitivity and the simplicity of procedure possible with its use, it has not found great favor for general biochemical purposes. In the belief that this reagent, nevertheless, has considerable merit for certain application, but that its peculiarities and limitations need to be understood for its fullest exploitation, it has been studied with regard t.o effects of variations in pH, time of reaction, and concentration of react- ants, permissible levels of reagents commonly used in handling proteins, and interfering subst.ances. Procedures are described for measuring pro- tein in solution or after precipitation wit,h acids or other agents, and for the determination of as little as 0.2 y of protein.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1951; 193(1):265-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor