Marrow stromal cells: implications in health and disease in the nervous system.
ABSTRACT Chronic degenerative diseases and traumatic injuries are responsible for a decline in neuronal function, which often limit life span. While solid organ transplantation such as liver and kidney has been already applied for thousands of patients, great limitation exists in case of nervous system. Cell transplantation is one of the strategies with potential for treatment of such neural disorders, and many kinds of cells including embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells have been considered as candidates for transplantation therapy. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential as therapeutic agents, since they are easy to isolate and can be expanded from patients without serious ethical and technical problems. We found a method for the highly efficient and specific induction of functional neurons and Schwann cells from both rat and human MSCs. Induced neurons and Schwann cells were transplanted in animal models of Parkinson's disease, stroke, peripheral nerve injury, and spinal cord injury resulting in the successful integration of transplanted cells and improvement in behavior of transplanted animals. Here we focus on the respective potentials of MSC-derived cells and discuss the possibility of clinical application in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases.
- SourceAvailable from: Alexander Rodríguez Guerrero[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bone marrow can potentially reduce the acute inflammatory response in spinal cord injury (SCI) and thus promote functional recovery. However, the precise mechanisms through which transplanted MSC attenuate inflammation after SCI are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of MSC transplantation with a special focus on their effect on macrophage activation after SCI. Rats were subjected to T9-T10 SCI by contusion, then treated 3 days later with transplantation of 1.0×10(6) PKH26-labeled MSC into the contusion epicenter. The transplanted MSC migrated within the injured spinal cord without differentiating into glial or neuronal elements. MSC transplantation was associated with marked changes in the SCI environment, with significant increases in IL-4 and IL-13 levels, and reductions in TNF-α and IL-6 levels. This was associated simultaneously with increased numbers of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 phenotype: arginase-1- or CD206-positive), and decreased numbers of classically activated macrophages (M1 phenotype: iNOS- or CD16/32-positive). These changes were associated with functional locomotion recovery in the MSC-transplanted group, which correlated with preserved axons, less scar tissue formation, and increased myelin sparing. Our results suggested that acute transplantation of MSC after SCI modified the inflammatory environment by shifting the macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2, and that this may reduce the effects of the inhibitory scar tissue in the subacute/chronic phase after injury to provide a permissive environment for axonal extension and functional recovery.Journal of neurotrauma 01/2012; 29(8):1614-25. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) decrease neurological deficits in rodents after stroke and concomitantly induce extensive neurite remodeling in the brain, which highly correlates with the improvement of neurological function. We investigated the effects of endogenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) on neurite remodeling after BMSC treatment. Adult C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice and tPA knockout (tPA(-/-)) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by an injection of 1×10(6) BMSC (n=18) or phosphate-buffered saline (n=18) into the tail vein 24 hours later. Behavioral tests were performed at 3, 7, and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were euthanized at 14 days after stroke. The effects of BMSC on functional recovery depended on presence or absence of tPA, even after adjusting for imbalanced stroke severity. BMSC significantly improve functional recovery in WT mice compared to WT controls but show no beneficial effect in the tPA(-/-) mice compared to tPA(-/-) controls. Axonal density and synaptophysin-positive areas along the ischemic boundary zone of the cortex and striatum in WT mice are significantly higher than in the tPA(-/-) mice. BMSC treatment significantly increases tPA protein level and activity only in WT mice. Our results suggest that endogenous tPA promotes BMSC-induced neurite outgrowth and may contribute to functional recovery after stroke.Stroke 02/2011; 42(2):459-64. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been studied as effective transplants for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Our previous study showed that BMSCs infused into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exhibited distinct effects on the recovery of acute SCI. The present study examined the effects of BMSCs in sub-acute SCI (2weeks post-injury) by transplanting them directly into the lesion. The spinal cord was crush-injured at the Th8-9 level in rats, and 2weeks later, cultured BMSCs (5x10(5)) derived from GFP-transgenic rats of the same strain were transplanted into the lesion. Tissue repair and nerve regeneration were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. GFP-labeled BMSCs survived as cell assemblies in the spinal cord for 1-2weeks after transplantation. The dorsal side of BMSC assemblies in the spinal cord usually showed an expanded GFAP-negative, astrocyte-devoid area, in which extracellular matrices including collagen fibrils were deposited. Numerous regenerating axons associated with Schwann cells grew out through such astrocyte-devoid extracellular matrices. Ascending (CGRP-containing) and descending (5HT- and TH-containing) axons were included in these regenerating axons. Regenerated axons were myelinated by Schwann cells beyond 2weeks post-transplantation. Cavity formation was reduced in the cell transplantation group. Locomotory behavior assessed by the BBB scale improved to 9.8 points in the cell transplantation group, while it was to 5.5-5.7 in the control. BMSC transplantation into lesions of advanced SCI has markedly beneficial effects on tissue repair and axonal outgrowth, leading to improved locomotion in rats.Brain research 03/2010; 1332:32-47. · 2.46 Impact Factor