Basal-Cell Carcinoma

Department of Dermatology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 12/2005; 353(21):2262-9. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra044151
Source: PubMed
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    • "Treatment options are focused on local control, including surgical techniques as curettage and electrodessication, cryosurgery , surgical excision, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Nonsurgical approaches include radiotherapy, topical injection therapy, and photodynamic therapy (Rubin et al. 2005). Mutations in genes associated with the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway, as well as defects in repair genes or up-regulation of transcription factors have been implied in the development of BCC (Iwasaki et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Multiple environmental and genetic factors are involved with the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCC), as well as with breast cancers. Tumor initiation and progression are often associated with genomic instability such as aneuploidies, and gains or losses of large chromosomal segments, known as copy number alterations (CNAs). CNAs have been successfully detected using the microarray comparative genomic hybridization technique (array-CGH) at high resolution. Data thus obtained are useful to identify specific genomic aberrations, to classify tumor stages, and to stratify subgroups of patients with different prognosis and clinical behaviors. Case description: Clinical study of a 66-year-old white female identified two primary tumors, a ductal invasive grade-II carcinoma of the breast, and one nodular BCC. Germline and tumor genomic survey utilized the 180 K array-CGH analysis to investigate chromosomal alterations. Discussion and evaluation: Several chromosomal anomalies were detected in the breast tumor genome, including focal ~422 Kb 13q13.3 microdeletion. In the BCC, amplification of a chromosome 6 spanning the centromere region between the cytobands 6p23 and 6q12 was identified. Several 6p amplified genes correspond to families of histone and human leukocyte antigen genes, whereas some of the CNAs found in the breast tumor are uncommon. No germline CNA was detected in the normal skin of the patient at this technical resolution. Conclusion: CNAs found in the two different tumors of the patient constitute independent events arisen in the somatic lineage. Relevant genes to both carcinogenesis and progression are to be affected by these CNAs.
    SpringerPlus 08/2014; 3:454. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-454
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    • "Metastasis is rare with ,1% of cases progressing to this stage with a median time of 8 yr after the initial lesion forms. Local surgical excision and chemotherapy are the most common traditional therapies to treat BCC (Rubin et al. 2005). Surgical methods include curettage (scooping or scraping), electrodissection (burning), cryosurgery (freezing), surgical excision, and Mohs surgery ( progressive excision with real-time pathology). "
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    ABSTRACT: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists.
    Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 07/2014; 4(7). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a013581 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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    • "Published studies suggest that the incidence of BCC is increasing worldwide, and there is significant geographic variability.6,7 In Caucasian individuals, the lifetime risk of developing BCC is 30%.4,8 Australia has the highest rate of BCC in the world.9 "
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    ABSTRACT: Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide, its metastatic dissemination is exceptional. Before 2012, we had a few treatment options available for metastatic or locally advanced cases. Management of these patients was complicated due to the lack of scientific data, the deterioration of a patient's general status, the patient's advanced age, and the presence of multiple comorbidities. The hedgehog signaling pathway is dysregulated in BCC. The exploration of this signaling pathway yielded to a major milestone in the treatment of advanced BCC. Vismodegib (GDC-0449), an oral small-molecule agent that targets the Hedgehog signaling pathway, demonstrates high levels of activity in clinical trials. It was approved in January 2012 for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic BCC. Vismodegib confirms, once again, the interest in exploring the signal transduction pathways in cancers.
    Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 06/2014; 8:77-80. DOI:10.4137/CMO.S14569
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