Air aerosol samples for TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)), fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)) and metallic elements were collected during March 2004 to January 2005 at TH (Taichung Harbor) in central Taiwan. The seasonal variation average concentration of TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) and fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)) were in the range 132-171.1 microg m(-3) and 43-49.5 microg m(-3), respectively. Seasonal variation of metallic elements Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during spring. Seasonal variation of metallic elements Pb, Cr and Mg in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during winter. The average metallic element TSP (total suspended particulate) concentration order was Fe>Zn>Mg>Cu>Cr>Mn>Pb in spring. In addition, at the TH sampling site, the average concentration variation of TSP (total suspended particulate) displayed the following order: spring>winter>autumn>summer. However, the average concentration variation of coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) displayed the following order: spring>winter>summer>autumn. Finally, the average concentration variations of fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)) were in the following order: winter>spring>summer>autumn at the TH sample site.
"In order to study this issue before applying the model to our data, the more recent experimental data on the distribution of pesticides in air from others studies (Table SD-6) has been depicted together with its theoretical distribution according to the K oa model (Fig. 2). For this model different scenarios have been used, taking into account the range of values of f OM (from 0.05 to 0.35) (Harrison et al., 2004) and C TSP (from 35 to 500 mg m À3 ) (Chrysikou and Samara, 2009; Fang et al., 2006) that can be found in the atmosphere. Fig. 2 shows that most of the experimental data on the pesticide G/P distribution agree with the absorption model proposed by Harner and Bidleman, considering the wide range of experimental conditions covered by the different studies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (K-oa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m(-3). For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was <1 for all pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.
Atmospheric Environment 07/2014; In Press. DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.07.047 · 3.28 Impact Factor
"Table 2 Comparison of metallic elements concentrations in PM 2.5 around Asian areas during 1995–2005 (ng/m 3 ) Country Sampling site Cu Mn Zn Pb Cr Mg Fe Cd Singapore  CSC (Pre-Haze) 5.2 7.2 43 29 – 52 105 – Singapore  CSC (Haze) 6.5 6.2 68 31 – 40 123 – Singapore  AJC (Pre-Haze) 26.6 5.2 41 42 - 207 115 – Singapore  AJC (Haze) 27 4.7 56 21 – 40 117 – China  Nanjing 21.719 33.851 132.494 12.99 1.789 337 17.088 – Taiwan  Taichung Harbor 87.425 20.6 136.075 5.4 41.275 174.025 249.05 – Taiwan  Taichung 11.5 19.1 177.8 283.1 33.5 37.9 162.8 4.3 Table 3 The source and pollution characteristic category of the metallic elements around the world Source The pollution characteristic category of the metallic elements around the world Sea salt   "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulates and gaseous phases of PM(2.5) in Asia over the past 10 years. This work also compared and discussed different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods in Asia countries in past decade. The results indicated that the main PM(2.5) sources are traffic exhausts. PM(2.5) concentrations are also ranked highest in the areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites in Asian countries. This work elucidates the sources, analytical tools, and the average concentrations for PM(2.5) and related metallic elements during 1995-2005. The results indicated that the average highest concentrations order of metallic elements for PM(2.5) were Fe>Mg>Zn, and the average concentrations of lowest metallic elements was Pb>Cu>Mn>Cr>Cd. The results also indicated that the concentration of metallic element Cu increased as the averaged concentrations of metallic element Zn and Mn increased during the past 10 years in Asian countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study characterized the dry deposition flux and dry deposition velocity (Vd) of metallic elements attached on particulate matter. Specifically, large particles (>10 μm), coarse particles (10 μm∼2.5 μm), and fine particles (2.5–10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and metallic elements concentrations at the Airport and Taichung Harbor sites between June 17, 2013, and November 14, 2013. The results revealed that the average TSP, DDP, Vd, PM2.5–10, and PM2.5 particulate at the Airport were 54.55 (μg/m3), 902.25 (μg/m2-min), 17.11 (m/sec), 0.003 (μg/m3), and 0.010 (μg/m3), respectively; while these values at Taichung Harbor were 63.66 (μg/m3), 539.69 (μg/m2-min), 9.94 (m/sec), 0.003 (μg/m3), and 0.014 (μg/m3), respectively. In addition, the results showed that the average Cu and Pb concentrations were higher than Cr, Ni, and Cd for both the airport and harbor sampling sites. Furthermore, Cr, N, Cu, Cd, and Pb had the highest average concentrations versus those reported for other study areas, with one exception: The results obtained in Kacanik, Kosovo, during 2005. The average metallic elements concentrations order was Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cd.
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