The impact of a school entry law on adolescent immunization rates.
ABSTRACT Middle school entry laws increase coverage with recommended vaccines, but their effect on vaccines that are not required is unknown. We compared vaccination coverage for hepatitis B, tetanus and diphtheria (Td), and measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) in areas of states with discordant middle school, hepatitis B school entry laws, and evaluated the relationship between demographic characteristics and adolescent immunization rates.
Retrospective design with purposive school sampling, using location of residence to determine study group. In each school, immunization records from a random sample of up to 75 students in ninth grade (affected by a new hepatitis B law) and 12th grade (not affected by the law) from 11 schools in two areas discordant for the law were analyzed. All areas had long standing two-dose MMR and Td requirements.
Ninth graders in schools with the law had hepatitis B rates higher (72.8%) than those without the law (18.6%) (U = 2.0, p < .01). There were no significant differences between grades or schools for MMR and Td. However, even in the presence of the law, rates were significantly lower in schools with lower socioeconomic indicators.
Middle school immunization laws are effective at raising adolescent hepatitis B, but in this study there wasn't enough power to discern the effect on rates for other vaccines or the influence of demographic variables on rates. Results suggested that laws did not appear to completely overcome disparities. For school mandates to be more effective, additional efforts, presumably on enforcement, especially in areas with lower socioeconomic indicators, are needed.
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ABSTRACT: Unvaccinated individuals pose a public health threat to communities. Research has identified many factors associated with parental vaccine refusal and hesitancy toward childhood and adolescent immunizations. However, data on the effectiveness of interventions to address parental refusal are limited. We conducted a systematic review of four online databases to identify interventional studies. We used criteria recommended by the WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) for the quality assessment of studies. Intervention categories and outcomes were evaluated for each body of evidence and confidence in overall estimates of effect was determined. There is limited evidence to guide implementation of effective strategies to deal with the emerging threat of parental vaccine refusal. There is a need for appropriately designed, executed and evaluated intervention studies to address this gap in knowledge.Vaccine 07/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. We examined the effect of Michigan's new school rules and vaccine coadministration on time to completion of all the school-required vaccine series, the individual adolescent vaccines newly required for sixth grade in 2010, and initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series, which was recommended but not required for girls. Methods. Data were derived from the Michigan Care Improvement Registry, a statewide Immunization Information System. We assessed the immunization status of Michigan children enrolled in sixth grade in 2009 or 2010. We used univariable and multivariable Cox regression models to identify significant associations between each factor and school completeness. Results. Enrollment in sixth grade in 2010 and coadministration of adolescent vaccines at the first adolescent visit were significantly associated with completion of the vaccines required for Michigan's sixth graders. Children enrolled in sixth grade in 2010 had higher coverage with the newly required adolescent vaccines by age 13 years than did sixth graders in 2009, but there was little difference in the rate of HPV vaccine initiation among girls. Conclusions. Education and outreach efforts, particularly regarding the importance and benefits of coadministration of all recommended vaccines in adolescents, should be directed toward health care providers, parents, and adolescents. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 12, 2014: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301910).American Journal of Public Health 06/2014; · 4.23 Impact Factor