Article

Social disadvantage and adolescent stress

Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453-9110, USA.
Journal of Adolescent Health (Impact Factor: 2.75). 01/2006; 37(6):484-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.11.126
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Low socioeconomic status (SES) and minority race/ethnicity are both associated with chronic stress and co-vary in American society. As such, these factors are often used synonymously, without clear theoretical conceptualization of their roles in the development of stress-related health disparities. This study theorized that race/ethnicity and SES reflect social disadvantage, which is the underlying factor in the development of stress-related illness, and examined how social disadvantage, defined in terms of both race/ethnicity and SES, influences adolescents’ stress.

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    • "Thus, following adjustment for objective SES, lower SSSsociety was associated with poorer self-rated health, both crosssectionally and longitudinally in US 12e19 year-olds (Goodman et al., 2007), with poorer self-rated health, increased health complaints , chronic illness and psychological distress in Finnish 15 year-olds (Karvonen and Rahkonen, 2011) and with presence of mood, anxiety, disruptive behaviour and substance disorders in US 13e18 year-olds (McLaughlin et al., 2012). However, in other studies, SSS-society was associated with health (stress) only among certain sub-groups of US 12e19 year-olds (Goodman et al., 2005) or with certain health measures (positive psychological characteristics ) but not others (physiological measures; negative psychological characteristics) among US 14e19 year-olds (Chen and Paterson, 2006). Significantly, none of these studies were conducted in the UK, a country characterised by large socio-economic inequalities compared with other industrialised nations (Hills, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions ("SSS-peer", "SSS-scholastic" and "SSS-sports") had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13-15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being.
    Social Science & Medicine 09/2014; 121C:39-47. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.09.037 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    • "The role of socioeconomic status as a differential factor among individuals is well documented. Several studies have indicated different kinds of stress challenges for individuals who come from a lower socioeconomic status (Evans, 2004; Grant et al. 2006) as well as relationships between SES and stress (Goodman et al. 2005). Generally, individuals from low SES reported lower levels of perceived health and more psychosomatic symptoms compared to higher SES individuals (Piko and Fitzpatric 2001; Berntsson and Kohler 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the salutogenic theory, the aim of this study was to examine sense of coherence and communal resiliency as related to stress reactions during missile attacks. Data were gathered in August 2011 while missiles were being shot from Gaza to the Negev communities in Israel from approximately 150 participants, aged 15-85. Participants lived in cities and different types of small rural villages. Self reported questionnaires were administered via the internet and included demographic data, coping resource of sense of coherence and community resiliency as coping resources, as well as state anxiety, state anger and psychological distress as stress reaction outcomes. Overall, the participants in our study reported strong personal and communal resources and relatively low levels of stress reactions. Personal and communal resources were linked negatively to the different stress reactions. However, some differences emerged when we compared participants from different types of communities. The most resilient group was composed of people who lived in the rural and communal communities. Differences also emerged on patterns of relationships between the community resource and state anxiety. While among the rural citizens, community resilience was strongly linked to anxiety, no relationships were revealed in the urban citizens group.
    Community Mental Health Journal 06/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10597-013-9623-5 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Being socially disadvantaged is related to increased stress regardless of whether being socially disadvantaged is defined in terms of race and/or ethnicity or SES [13]. Black and Hispanic students are more likely than white students to report physical fights or injuries from physical fights in the past year as well as more likely to report not attending school in the past month because of feeling unsafe going to or from school [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes a feasibility study of a program that mentors boys aged 14-18 living in inner city public housing, engages them in a basketball league, and provides educational sessions on life skills and ways to resolve conflicts without violence. Such programs have the potential to engage adolescent males living in public housing in activities that reduce cancer-related behaviors and increase protective behaviors. We conducted a feasibility evaluation of the program, which included a survey of participants, interviews with coaches, and observations of games and practices. Lifetime and previous-30-day substance use was common among participants, and many were exposed to and had experienced various forms of violence. Keeping youths active helps prevent their joining gangs and using drugs. Youths from disadvantaged backgrounds are at a high risk for cancer because they are at greater risk for obesity and other adverse health-related conditions than are more affluent youths. Implementing and sustaining community programs for youths in public housing can reduce the effects of exposure to factors that put them at risk for cancer during adulthood: chronic poverty, lack of safe areas for recreation, easy access to alcohol and drugs, and exposure to violence. In addition, workshops to prevent substance use and violence and to teach leadership, sportsmanship, conflict resolution, and healthy youth development are needed for youths, coaches, and parents or guardians.
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