Although both strength training (ST) and endurance training (ET) seem to be beneficial in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), little is known about post-exercise glucose profiles. The objective of the study was to report changes in blood glucose (BG) values after a 4-month ET and ST programme now that a device for continuous glucose monitoring has become available.
Fifteen participants, comprising four men age 56.5 +/- 0.9 years and 11 women age 57.4 +/- 0.9 years with T2D, were monitored with the MiniMed (Northridge, CA, USA) continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for 48 h before and after 4 months of ET or ST. The ST consisted of three sets at the beginning, increasing to six sets per week at the end of the training period, including all major muscle groups and ET performed with an intensity of maximal oxygen uptake of 60% and a volume beginning at 15 min and advancing to a maximum of 30 min three times a week.
A total of 17,549 single BG measurements pretraining (619.7 +/- 39.8) and post-training (550.3 +/- 30.1) were recorded, correlating to an average of 585 +/- 25.3 potential measurements per participant at the beginning and at the end of the study. The change in BG-value between the beginning (132 mg dL(-1)) and the end (118 mg dL(-1)) for all participants was significant (P = 0.028). The improvement in BG-value for the ST programme was significant (P = 0.02) but for the ET no significant change was measured (P = 0.48). Glycaemic control improved in the ST group and the mean BG was reduced by 15.6% (Cl 3-25%).
In conclusion, the CGMS may be a useful tool in monitoring improvements in glycaemic control after different exercise programmes. Additionally, the CGMS may help to identify asymptomatic hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia after training programmes.
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"Our findings are in agreement with Cauza et al, showing a greater improvement in blood glucose control following 4 months of strength training as opposed to endurance exercise . In fact, they showed no significant reduction in mean blood glucose levels, as monitored by continuous glucose monitors in the aerobic endurance training group. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 10 weeks of resistance or treadmill exercises on glycemic indices levels prior to and immediately following exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Twenty inactive subjects (mean age 53.5 years) with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the study. Baseline HbA1c, blood glucose levels, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured for each subject prior to the initiation of the exercise program. Subsequently, subjects were matched to age, waist circumference and sex and assigned to either isocaloric resistance or treadmill exercise groups, which met 3 times per week for 10 weeks.
Both groups showed a reduction in pre and post-exercise blood glucose and HbA1c values. There was no change in resting blood pressure or heart rate in either group during the course of the 10 week intervention. The group receiving resistance exercises showed significant differences in the daily pre-exercise plasma glucose readings between the beginning and end of the exercise protocol (p < 0.001). There were significant improvements in the mean HbA1c reading pre and post training in both groups (p < 0.001). However, the greater reduction was noted in the resistance exercise group, and at 10 weeks their HbA1c levels were significantly lower than the group that received treadmill exercises (p < 0.006).
Ten weeks of resistance exercises were associated with a significantly better glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes compared to treadmill exercise.
"). Recently, however, Cauza et al. (2005) found a signiWcant improvement in lipid proWle in patients with type 2 diabetes after 6 months of strength, but not after aerobic training. Position statements from the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Sports Medicine recommend that a complete exercise program for patients with type 2 diabetes should combine both strength and aerobic training (ACSM 2000; American Diabetes Association 2001). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effects on blood lipids and physical fitness after a training program that combined strength and aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Ten patients (55.0 +/- 5.2 years) followed four exercise sessions per week, two strength and two aerobic, and ten (59.4 +/- 3.2 years) served as a control group. Lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), HOMA2 index, exercise stress and muscular testing were assessed at the beginning and after 16 weeks of training program. Exercise training increased significantly HDL-C (17.2%; P < 0.001) and decreased triglycerides (18.9%), HbA(1c) (15.0%), fasting plasma glucose (5.4%), insulin resistance (HOMA2 25.2%) and resting blood pressure (P < 0.01). After 16 weeks of training, exercise time (17.8%) and muscular strength increased significantly (P < 0.001). The results indicated that a combined strength and aerobic training program could induce positive adaptations on lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin resistance, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes and the associated comorbidity of obesity, there has been increased demand
to develop effective treatment programs. Exercise has been traditionally associated with a number of health benefits, including
increased insulin sensitivity, but remains an underused modality. Although certain contraindications exist for those individuals
with health complications, exercise can be a safe and effective treatment for most people with type 2 diabetes. To date, the
majority of research has focused on aerobic exercise, and suggests that low to moderate exercise intensity improves insulin
sensitivity and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially those who are treated early in the disease.
Some recent research has also supported the use of resistance exercise in type 2 diabetes. As with aerobic exercise, improvements
in insulin sensitivity and glycemic control have been reported with moderate intensity resistance exercise. Both aerobic and
resistance exercise should be incorporated into a weekly exercise program to take advantage of the exercise-specific adaptations
that improve overall glucose disposal. Regardless of the type of exercise, both the American Diabetic Association and the
American College of Sports Medicine agree that exercise should be taken at least 3 times per week, on nonconsecutive days.
Based on the available research, regular exercise can play an integral role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and can be
prescribed to the majority of patients.