Outcome expectations and physical activity participation in two samples of older women
ABSTRACT Outcome expectations have received little study in physical activity (PA) research. This study examined whether initial outcome expectations and their achievement at 6 months (i.e. outcome realizations) predicted subsequent PA participation (7-12 months) in 118 older women. Initial outcome expectations were not associated with PA participation. Outcome realizations at 6 months, however, predicted subsequent PA participation (p < .05). Women with high expectations but low attainment had the lowest subsequent participation rates. Women with high attainment, regardless of expectations, had the highest rates. Findings replicate and extend an earlier study and argue for a more dynamic conceptualization of outcome expectations.
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ABSTRACT: When people intend and plan to perform higher levels of physical activity, they do not start on impulse without preparing. Thus, preparation is a behavioral construct positioned between planning and target behavior. This may be reflected by the acquisition of sports equipment as well as monitoring devices such as pedometers. The research questions are who takes such preparatory action, whether picking up a complimentary pedometer can be predicted by self-efficacy and outcome expectancies, and whether this kind of preparatory action facilitates subsequent physical activity. A longitudinal physical activity survey was conducted with 143 university students who were offered a complimentary pedometer. Collecting this free gift served as indicator of preparatory behavior. Outcome expectancies and self-efficacy beliefs were specified as predictors of this behavior. Two weeks later, physical activity differences between the groups were determined. Collecting the pedometer was associated with higher levels of physical activity at follow-up. Outcome expectancies failed to predict the pedometer collection, but self-efficacy did. An interaction between these two factors indicated that self-efficacy compensated for low outcome expectancies. Pedometer acquisition signifies a preparatory action that is facilitated by self-efficacy. Positioned between planning and target behavior, they constitute a proximal self-regulatory step towards health behavior change.Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being 03/2013; 5(1):136-47. DOI:10.1111/aphw.12003
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ABSTRACT: This prospective study tested whether (a) baseline outcome expectations regarding the benefits of a weight-loss diet, (b) 6-month outcome realizations regarding perceived benefits actually experienced, and/or (c) the interaction between them predicted 6-12-month weight regain among overweight/obese women randomized to one of four popular weight-loss diets (N=311). Positive 6-month realizations regarding improvements in physical shape and appearance predicted less 6-12-month weight regain among Atkins diet participants only (n=70), controlling for baseline expectations, the expectations-realization interaction, and initial weight loss. Atkins participants displayed three distinct patterns of regain based on levels of 6-month realizations and initial weight loss. Experimental research should investigate whether improving realizations leads to reduced weight regain in response to this popular diet.Eating behaviors 01/2011; 12(1):60-3. DOI:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2010.08.007
- Health Psychology Review 09/2009; 3(2):147-207. DOI:10.1080/17437190903229462