Social support and coronary heart disease: epidemiologic evidence and implications for treatment.
ABSTRACT The present paper reviews theories of social support and evidence for the role of social support in the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD).
Articles for the primary review of social support as a risk factor were identified with MEDLINE (1966-2004) and PsychINFO (1872-2004). Reviews of bibliographies also were used to identify relevant articles.
In general, evidence suggests that low social support confers a risk of 1.5 to 2.0 in both healthy populations and in patients with established CHD. However, there is substantial variability in the manner in which social support is conceptualized and measured. In addition, few studies have simultaneously compared differing types of support.
Although low levels of support are associated with increased risk for CHD events, it is not clear what types of support are most associated with clinical outcomes in healthy persons and CHD patients. The development of a consensus in the conceptualization and measurement of social support is needed to examine which types of support are most likely to be associated with adverse CHD outcomes. There also is little evidence that improving low social support reduces CHD events.
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ABSTRACT: Social support can facilitate compliance or adherence to recommended treatment regimens, especially for chronic disease management. There is little data from Africa on the role of social support in the management of chronic disease. The current study investigated the relationship between social support for treatment compliance among hypertensive subjects in a poor urban community in southwest Nigeria. A second objective was identifying the correlates of social support in the study sample. The study was a community-based, cross-sectional and descriptive study of 440 community residents (mean age 60 years, 65.2% women) from Idikan community, Ibadan, Nigeria who had hypertension. Most subjects (˜ 93%) reported receiving some social support from family members and approximately 55% reported receiving social support from friends. Social support from friends (p < 0.0001) but not from family (p = 0.162) was significantly associated with good compliance with treatment for hypertension. Factors associated with receiving significant support from both family and friends included marital status and religion, while age and educational level were associated with receiving significant support from family members only. Gender was not significantly associated with receiving social support. We concluded that social support is strongly associated with hypertension treatment compliance in this community in south-west Nigeria. These findings suggest a need for exploring the promotion of social support as a useful tool in chronic disease treatment programmes.03/2015; 26(1):29-33. DOI:10.5830/CVJA-2014-066
04/2014; 22(1):24-29. DOI:10.1123/wspaj.2014-0008
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ABSTRACT: The Japanese Coronary-prone Behaviour Scale (JCBS) is a questionnaire developed by the Eastern Collaborative Group Study (ECGS), a multi-centre study of coronary-prone behaviour among Japanese men. Subscale C of the JCBS consists of 9 items that have been independently associated with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG). There have been no reports of a relationship between any behavioural factor and the prognosis of CAD in Japan. The purpose of the current study was to investigate behavioural correlations with the prognosis of CAD as a part of the ECGS. We examined the mortality and coronary events of 201 men (58 ± 10, 27-86 years) enrolled in the ECGS from 1990 to 1995, who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography and were administered the JCBS and the Japanese version of the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) Form C. Their health information after CAG was determined by a review of their medical records and by telephone interviews that took place from 2002 to 2003. Cardiac events during the follow-up period (7.7 ± 4.2 years) included 13 deaths from CAD, 25 cases of new-onset myocardial infarction, 26 cases of percutaneous coronary intervention, and 19 cases of coronary artery bypass graft surgery. There was no difference in established risk factors between groups with and without cardiac events. Seven factors were extracted by principal component analysis in order to clarify which factors were measured by the JCBS. Stepwise multivariate Cox-hazard regression analysis, in which 9 standard coronary risk factors were forced into the model, showed that Factor 4 from the JCBS (namely, the Japanese spirit of 'Wa') was independently associated with coronary events (hazard ratio: 0.21; p = 0.01). By other Cox-hazards regression analyses of coronary events using each set of JAS scores and the JCBS Scale C score instead of Factor 4 as selectable variables, the JAS scores or the JCBS Scale C score were not entered into the models. The Japanese spirit of 'Wa' is a preventive factor against coronary events for Japanese men with CAD.BioPsychoSocial Medicine 12/2015; 9(1):3. DOI:10.1186/s13030-015-0030-8