The present paper reviews theories of social support and evidence for the role of social support in the development and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD).
Articles for the primary review of social support as a risk factor were identified with MEDLINE (1966-2004) and PsychINFO (1872-2004). Reviews of bibliographies also were used to identify relevant articles.
In general, evidence suggests that low social support confers a risk of 1.5 to 2.0 in both healthy populations and in patients with established CHD. However, there is substantial variability in the manner in which social support is conceptualized and measured. In addition, few studies have simultaneously compared differing types of support.
Although low levels of support are associated with increased risk for CHD events, it is not clear what types of support are most associated with clinical outcomes in healthy persons and CHD patients. The development of a consensus in the conceptualization and measurement of social support is needed to examine which types of support are most likely to be associated with adverse CHD outcomes. There also is little evidence that improving low social support reduces CHD events.
"Данные последних систематических обзоров показали, что люди, которые изолированы или обособлены от других, имеют повышенный риск преждевременной смерти от ССЗ. В то же время было показано, что у пациентов с ишемической болезнью сердца (ИБС) низкий уровень социальной поддержки, определенный по шкале MSPSS, был связан с прогрессированием заболевания, что ведет к снижению выживаемости и более неблагоприятному прогнозу у этих пациентов [Frasure-Smith et al., 2000; Lett et al., 2005]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to assess factorial and construct validity along with reliability of Russian version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) in cardiac patients. The study included 1018 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent PCI. All patients were offered to fill out a questionnaire to detect psychosocial risk factors including measuring of social support level using Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The results of the study go to prove that Russian version of MSPSS is completely corresponded with English version in reliability, consistency and internal structure. Test–retest reliability was satisfactory high and construct validity was confirmed with the results of correlation analysis. Consequently, the questionnaire can be used in patients with cardiac pathology for assessing the level of social support.
"This study showed that support is a positive aspect of patient and family interactions, which may promote and restore health by managing illness and stress and replacing negative emotions with positive ones. Lett et al. (2005) in a study of social supports in patients with CHD reported that low levels of support are related to high risk of acute phases of illness. In a study of spinal cord injury patients, the main concept in confrontation with disability was support , which was associated with the consequences of disability and finding new self and sensing independency (Ahmadzadeh et al. 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore how Iranian patients with coronary heart disease experience their lives.
Coronary heart disease is a leading cause of death in Iran and worldwide. Understanding qualitatively how patients experience the acute and postacute stages of this chronic condition is essential knowledge for minimising the negative consequences of coronary heart disease.
Qualitative study using grounded theory for the data analysis.
Data for this study were collected through individual qualitative interviews with 24 patients with coronary heart disease, conducted between January 2009 and January 2011. Patients with angina pectoris were selected for participation through purposive sampling, and sample size was determined by data saturation. Data analysis began with initial coding and continued with focused coding. Categories were determined, and the core category was subsequently developed and finalised.
The main categories of the transition from acute phase to a modified or 'new normal' life were: (1) Loss of normal life. Experiencing emotions and consequences of illness; (2) Coming to terms. Using coping strategies; (3) Recreating normal life. Healthcare providers must correctly recognise the stages of transition patients navigate while coping with coronary heart disease to support and educate them appropriately throughout these stages.
Patients with coronary heart disease lose their normal lives and must work towards recreating a revised life using coping strategies that enable them to come to terms with their situations.
By understanding Iranian patients' experiences, healthcare providers and especially nurses can use the information to support and educate patients with coronary heart disease on how to more effectively deal with their illness and its consequences.
"OCIAL support—or the provision of emotional and tangible assistance by family, friends, and other members of one's social network—is associated with better health and well-being among older adults (Berkman & Syme, 1979; House, Landis, & Umberson, 1998; Schulz et al., 2006; Uchino, 2004). Among older adults with chronic illness, social support is associated with better self-management, fewer hospital admissions, and better health-related quality of life (DiMatteo, 2004; Gallant, 2003; Lett et al., 2005; Luttik, Jaarsma, Moser, Sanderman, & van Veldhuisen, 2005). For diabetes mellitus in particular, a condition that often requires complex medical and self-care regimens to prevent disabling complications, evidence suggests that social support is particularly important for successful management (Gallant, 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study examined whether or not direct social support is associated with long-term health among middle-aged and older adults with diabetes mellitus. Method. Direct social support was assessed at baseline (2003) for 1,099 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the Health and Retirement Study. Self-reported health status was examined at baseline and in 4 biennial survey waves (2003-2010). A series of ordinal logistic regression models examined whether or not the 7-item Diabetes Care Profile scale was associated with a subsequent change in health status over time. Additional analyses examined whether or not individual components of direct social support were associated with health status change.
After adjusting for baseline covariates, greater direct social support as measured by the Diabetes Care Profile was associated with improved health outcomes over time; however, this trend was not significant (p = .06). The direct social support measures that were associated with improved health over follow-up were support for taking medicines (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22), physical activity (OR = 1.26), and going to health care providers (OR = 1.22; all p < .05). Discussion. Interventions that specifically target improving specific aspects of diabetes social support may be more effective in improving long-term health than less targeted efforts.
The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 11/2013; 68(6):933-43. DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbt100 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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