Analysis of mutations within multiple genes associated with resistance in a clinical isolate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced ceftriaxone susceptibility that shows a multidrug-resistant phenotype.
ABSTRACT A Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with a reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 0.5 microg/mL) was isolated among 398 clinical isolates obtained from 2000-2001 in Fukuoka City, Japan. The N. gonorrhoeae strain was negative for penicillinase production but it showed multidrug resistance against penicillin (MIC = 8 microg/mL), tetracycline (MIC = 4 microg/mL), azithromycin (MIC = 0.5 microg/mL) and ciprofloxacin (MIC = 16 microg/mL). The molecular mechanisms of the multidrug-resistant phenotype in this strain were analysed. Polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing were performed to identify mutations within the penA, ponA, mtrR, penB, gyrA and parC genes of the gonococcal strain, which thus explain the multidrug-resistant phenotype. The N. gonorrhoeae strain contained a significantly different sequence of the penA gene from that of the ceftriaxone-susceptible strains. Some regions of the transpeptidase domain within this penA gene were closely similar to those found in other Neisseria species such as Neisseria subflava, Neisseria flavescens or Neisseria perflava/sicca. This strain also included a ponA mutation that is associated with high-level resistance to penicillin, mtrR mutations that mediate overexpression of the MtrCDE efflux pump responsible for resistance to hydrophobic agents such as azithromycin, and penB mutations that reduce porin permeability to hydrophilic agents such as tetracycline. Moreover, this strain contained gyrA and parC mutations that confer high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. These results indicate the emergence of a N. gonorrhoeae strain with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone, which also showed a multidrug-resistant phenotype that can be explained by the presence of multiple loci mutations associated with antibiotic resistance.
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ABSTRACT: A high level of resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed against penicillins, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and quinolones, and recent surveillance data have shown a gradual reduction in sensitivity to current first-line agents with an upward drift in the minimum inhibitory concentration of ceftriaxone. Laboratory sensitivity testing suggests that gentamicin, an aminoglycoside, may be an effective treatment option for gonorrhoea infection when used as a single intramuscular dose.Systematic reviews. 09/2014; 3(1):104.
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ABSTRACT: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is evolving into a superbug with resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea, which is a major public health concern globally. Given the global nature of gonorrhea, the high rate of usage of antimicrobials, suboptimal control and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and treatment failures, slow update of treatment guidelines in most geographical settings, and the extraordinary capacity of the gonococci to develop and retain AMR, it is likely that the global problem of gonococcal AMR will worsen in the foreseeable future and that the severe complications of gonorrhea will emerge as a silent epidemic. By understanding the evolution, emergence, and spread of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae, including its molecular and phenotypic mechanisms, resistance to antimicrobials used clinically can be anticipated, future methods for genetic testing for AMR might permit region-specific and tailor-made antimicrobial therapy, and the design of novel antimicrobials to circumvent the resistance problems can be undertaken more rationally. This review focuses on the history and evolution of gonorrhea treatment regimens and emerging resistance to them, on genetic and phenotypic determinants of gonococcal resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials, including biological costs or benefits; and on crucial actions and future advances necessary to detect and treat resistant gonococcal strains and, ultimately, retain gonorrhea as a treatable infection.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 07/2014; 27(3):587-613. · 16.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is an increasing public health threat. Using Etest and multiantigen sequence typing, we detected sequence type 1407, which is associated with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in 4 major populated regions in California, USA, in 2012.Emerging infectious diseases 07/2014; 20(7). · 7.33 Impact Factor