Effect of intermittent hypoxia on oxygen uptake during submaximal exercise in endurance athletes.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to clarify the following: (1) whether steady state oxygen uptake (VO(2)) during exercise decreases after short-term intermittent hypoxia during a resting state in trained athletes and (2) whether the change in VO(2) during submaximal exercise is correlated to the change in endurance performance after intermittent hypoxia. Fifteen trained male endurance runners volunteered to participate in this study. Each subject was assigned to either a hypoxic group (n=8) or a control group (n=7). The hypoxic group spent 3 h per day for 14 consecutive days in normobaric hypoxia [12.3 (0.2)% inspired oxygen]. The maximal and submaximal exercise tests, a 3,000-m time trial, and resting hematology assessments at sea level were conducted before and after intermittent normobaric hypoxia. The athletes in both groups continued their normal training in normoxia throughout the experiment. VO(2) during submaximal exercise in the hypoxic group decreased significantly (P<0.05) following intermittent hypoxia. In the hypoxic group, the 3,000-m running time tended to improve (P=0.06) after intermittent hypoxia, but not in the control group. Neither peak VO(2) nor resting hematological parameters were changed in either group. There were significant (P<0.05) relationships between the change in the 3,000-m running time and the change in VO(2) during submaximal exercise after intermittent hypoxia. The results from the present study suggest that the enhanced running economy resulting from intermittent hypoxia could, in part, contribute to improved endurance performance in trained athletes.
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ABSTRACT: Reliability refers to the reproducibility of values of a test, assay or other measurement in repeated trials on the same individuals. Better reliability implies better precision of single measurements and better tracking of changes in measurements in research or practical settings. The main measures of reliability are within-subject random variation, systematic change in the mean, and retest correlation. A simple, adaptable form of within-subject variation is the typical (standard) error of measurement: the standard deviation of an individual's repeated measurements. For many measurements in sports medicine and science, the typical error is best expressed as a coefficient of variation (percentage of the mean). A biased, more limited form of within-subject variation is the limits of agreement: the 95% likely range of change of an individual's measurements between 2 trials. Systematic changes in the mean of a measure between consecutive trials represent such effects as learning, motivation or fatigue; these changes need to be eliminated from estimates of within-subject variation. Retest correlation is difficult to interpret, mainly because its value is sensitive to the heterogeneity of the sample of participants. Uses of reliability include decision-making when monitoring individuals, comparison of tests or equipment, estimation of sample size in experiments and estimation of the magnitude of individual differences in the response to a treatment. Reasonable precision for estimates of reliability requires approximately 50 study participants and at least 3 trials. Studies aimed at assessing variation in reliability between tests or equipment require complex designs and analyses that researchers seldom perform correctly. A wider understanding of reliability and adoption of the typical error as the standard measure of reliability would improve the assessment of tests and equipment in our disciplines.Sports Medicine 08/2000; 30(1):1-15. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine whether brief hypoxic stimuli in a hypobaric chamber are able to elicit erythropoietin (EPO) secretion, and to effectively stimulate erythropoiesis in the short term. In two different experiments, a set of haematological, biochemical, haemorheological, aerobic performance, and medical tests were performed in two groups of healthy subjects. In the first experiment, the mean plasma concentration of EPO ([EPO]) increased from 8.7 to 13.5 mU.ml-1 (55.2%; P < 0.01) after 90 min of acute exposure at 540 hPa, and continued to rise until a peak was attained 3 h after the termination of hypoxia. In the second experiment, in which subjects were exposed to a simulated altitude of up to 5500 m (504 hPa) for 90 min, three times a week for 3 weeks, all haematological indicators of red cell mass increased significantly, reaching the highest mean values at the end of the programme or during the subsequent 2 weeks, including packed cell volume (from 42.5 to 45.1%; P < 0.01), red blood cell count (from 4.55 x 10(6) to 4.86 x 10(6).l-1; P < 0.01), reticulocytes (from 0.5 to 1.4%; P < 0.01), and haemoglobin concentration (from 14.3 to 16.2 g.dl-1; P < 0.01), without an increase in blood viscosity. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during hypoxia was improved (from 60% to 78%; P < 0.05). Our most relevant finding is the ability to effectively stimulate erythropoiesis through brief intermittent hypoxic stimuli (90 min), in a short period of time (3 weeks), leading to a lower arterial blood desaturation in hypoxia. The proposed mechanism for these haematological and functional adaptations is the repeated triggering effect of EPO production caused by the intermittent hypoxic stimuli.Arbeitsphysiologie 06/2000; 82(3):170-7. · 2.66 Impact Factor
- Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews - EXERC SPORT SCI REV. 01/1999; 27.