Mapping of serotonin, dopamine, and histamine in relation to different clock neurons in the brain of Drosophila.
ABSTRACT Several sets of clock neurons cooperate to generate circadian activity rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster. To extend the knowledge on neurotransmitters in the clock circuitry, we analyzed the distribution of some biogenic amines in relation to identified clock neurons. This was accomplished by employing clock neuron-specific GAL4 lines driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression, combined with immunocytochemistry with antisera against serotonin, histamine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (for dopamine). In the larval and adult brain, serotonin-immunoreactive (-IR) neuron processes are in close proximity of both the dendrites and the dorsal terminals of the major clock neurons, the s-LN(v)s. Additionally, the terminals of the l-LN(v) clock neurons and serotonergic processes converge in the distal medulla. No histamine (HA)-IR processes contact the s-LN(v)s in the larval brain, but possibly impinge on the dorsal clock neurons, DN2. In the adult brain, HA-IR axons of the extraocular eyelet photoreceptors terminate on the dendritic branches of the LN(v)s. A few tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR processes were seen close to the dorsal terminals of the s-LN(v)s, but not their dendrites, in the larval and adult brain. TH-IR processes also converge with the distal medulla branches of the l-LN(v)s in adults. None of the monoamines was detectable in the different clock neurons. By using an imaging system to monitor intracellular Ca(2+) levels in dissociated GFP-labeled larval s-LN(v)s, loaded with Fura-2, we demonstrated that application of serotonin induced dose-dependent decreases in Ca(2+). Thus, serotonergic neurons form functional inputs on the s-LN(v)s in the larval brain and possibly also in adults.
Article: Histamine in the nervous system.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Histamine is a transmitter in the nervous system and a signaling molecule in the gut, the skin, and the immune system. Histaminergic neurons in mammalian brain are located exclusively in the tuberomamillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus and send their axons all over the central nervous system. Active solely during waking, they maintain wakefulness and attention. Three of the four known histamine receptors and binding to glutamate NMDA receptors serve multiple functions in the brain, particularly control of excitability and plasticity. H1 and H2 receptor-mediated actions are mostly excitatory; H3 receptors act as inhibitory auto- and heteroreceptors. Mutual interactions with other transmitter systems form a network that links basic homeostatic and higher brain functions, including sleep-wake regulation, circadian and feeding rhythms, immunity, learning, and memory in health and disease.Physiological Reviews 08/2008; 88(3):1183-241. · 26.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcriptional feedback loops are central to circadian clock function. However, the role of neural activity and membrane events in molecular rhythms in the fruit fly Drosophila is unclear. To address this question, we expressed a temperature-sensitive, dominant negative allele of the fly homolog of dynamin called shibire(ts1) (shi(ts1)), an active component in membrane vesicle scission. Broad expression in clock cells resulted in unexpectedly long, robust periods (>28 hours) comparable to perturbation of core clock components, suggesting an unappreciated role of membrane dynamics in setting period. Expression in the pacemaker lateral ventral neurons (LNv) was necessary and sufficient for this effect. Manipulation of other endocytic components exacerbated shi(ts1)'s behavioral effects, suggesting its mechanism is specific to endocytic regulation. PKA overexpression rescued period effects suggesting shi(ts1) may downregulate PKA pathways. Levels of the clock component PERIOD were reduced in the shi(ts1)-expressing pacemaker small LNv of flies held at a fully restrictive temperature (29 degrees C). Less restrictive conditions (25 degrees C) delayed cycling proportional to observed behavioral changes. Levels of the neuropeptide PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF), the only known LNv neurotransmitter, were also reduced, but PERIOD cycling was still delayed in flies lacking PDF, implicating a PDF-independent process. Further, shi(ts1) expression in the eye also results in reduced PER protein and per and vri transcript levels, suggesting that shibire-dependent signaling extends to peripheral clocks. The level of nuclear CLK, transcriptional activator of many core clock genes, is also reduced in shi(ts1) flies, and Clk overexpression suppresses the period-altering effects of shi(ts1). We propose that membrane protein turnover through endocytic regulation of PKA pathways modulates the core clock by altering CLK levels and/or activity. These results suggest an important role for membrane scission in setting circadian period.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(4):e5235. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Adult-specific electrical silencing of pacemaker neurons uncouples molecular clock from circadian outputs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms regulate physiology and behavior through transcriptional feedback loops of clock genes running within specific pacemaker cells. In Drosophila, molecular oscillations in the small ventral lateral neurons (sLNvs) command rhythmic behavior under free-running conditions releasing the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) in a circadian fashion. Electrical activity in the sLNvs is also required for behavioral rhythmicity. Yet, how temporal information is transduced into behavior remains unclear. Here we developed a new tool for temporal control of gene expression to obtain adult-restricted electrical silencing of the PDF circuit, which led to reversible behavioral arrhythmicity. Remarkably, PERIOD (PER) oscillations during the silenced phase remained unaltered, indicating that arrhythmicity is a direct consequence of the silenced activity. Accordingly, circadian axonal remodeling and PDF accumulation were severely affected during the silenced phase. Although electrical activity of the sLNvs is not a clock component, it coordinates circuit outputs leading to rhythmic behavior.Current biology: CB 11/2011; 21(21):1783-93. · 10.99 Impact Factor