Several sets of clock neurons cooperate to generate circadian activity rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster. To extend the knowledge on neurotransmitters in the clock circuitry, we analyzed the distribution of some biogenic amines in relation to identified clock neurons. This was accomplished by employing clock neuron-specific GAL4 lines driving green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression, combined with immunocytochemistry with antisera against serotonin, histamine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (for dopamine). In the larval and adult brain, serotonin-immunoreactive (-IR) neuron processes are in close proximity of both the dendrites and the dorsal terminals of the major clock neurons, the s-LN(v)s. Additionally, the terminals of the l-LN(v) clock neurons and serotonergic processes converge in the distal medulla. No histamine (HA)-IR processes contact the s-LN(v)s in the larval brain, but possibly impinge on the dorsal clock neurons, DN2. In the adult brain, HA-IR axons of the extraocular eyelet photoreceptors terminate on the dendritic branches of the LN(v)s. A few tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-IR processes were seen close to the dorsal terminals of the s-LN(v)s, but not their dendrites, in the larval and adult brain. TH-IR processes also converge with the distal medulla branches of the l-LN(v)s in adults. None of the monoamines was detectable in the different clock neurons. By using an imaging system to monitor intracellular Ca(2+) levels in dissociated GFP-labeled larval s-LN(v)s, loaded with Fura-2, we demonstrated that application of serotonin induced dose-dependent decreases in Ca(2+). Thus, serotonergic neurons form functional inputs on the s-LN(v)s in the larval brain and possibly also in adults.
"Thus, the l-LN v neurons are anatomically well suited to modulate the activity of many neurons. In addition, their arborisations overlap with those of monaminergic neurons (Hamasaka and Nässel, 2006). Several studies show that they indeed receive dopaminergic, octopaminergic and GABAergic input and that they control the flies' arousal and sleep (Agosto et al., 2008; Parisky et al., 2008; Kula-Eversole et al., 2010; Shang et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GABAergic signalling is important for normal sleep in humans and flies. Here we advance the current understanding of GABAergic modulation of daily sleep patterns by focusing on the role of slow metabotropic GABAB receptors in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We asked whether GABAB-R2 receptors are regulatory elements in sleep regulation in addition to the already identified fast ionotropic Rdl GABAA receptors. By immunocytochemical and reporter-based techniques we show that the pigment dispersing factor (PDF)-positive ventrolateral clock neurons (LNv) express GABAB-R2 receptors. Downregulation of GABAB-R2 receptors in the large PDF neurons (l-LNv) by RNAi reduced sleep maintenance in the second half of the night, whereas sleep latency at the beginning of the night that was previously shown to depend on ionotropic Rdl GABAA receptors remained unaltered. Our results confirm the role of the l-LNv neurons as an important part of the sleep circuit in D. melanogaster and also identify the GABAB-R2 receptors as the thus far missing component in GABA-signalling that is essential for sleep maintenance. Despite the significant effects on sleep, we did not observe any changes in circadian behaviour in flies with downregulated GABAB-R2 receptors, indicating that the regulation of sleep maintenance via l-LNv neurons is independent of their function in the circadian clock circuit.
"Histamine is mainly expressed in 10 cell bodies in each hemisphere of the Drosophila brain . Moreover, our anti-histamine staining reconfirmed a previous study showing histamine-expressing cells being located near PDF neurons (Figure 3C) . HisCl1 receptor was reported to be expressed in l-LNvs , suggesting that PDF neurons can receive histaminergic wake-activation signals, which could arise via the secretion of histamine from the HP2 or HP3 cell bodies in each hemisphere . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1) and ora transientless (Ort), are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC), an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF). Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68269. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0068269 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"N/A: no information available about neurotransmitter and neuropeptides received or released by that particular cluster. Not included in the table but worth noting is the information relevant to neurotransmission in the larval circadian clusters, which includes the substances PDF (Renn et al., 1999), ACh (Wegener et al., 2004), GABA (Hamasaka et al., 2005), Serotonin (Hamasaka and Nassel, 2006), Glutamate (Hamasaka et al., 2007) and sNPF (Johard et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the years it has become crystal clear that a variety of processes encode time of day information, ranging from gene expression, protein stability, or subcellular localization of key proteins, to the fine tuning of network properties and modulation of input signals, ultimately ensuring that physiology and behavior are properly synchronized to a changing environment. The purpose of this review is to put forward examples (as opposed to generate a comprehensive revision of all the available literature) in which the circadian system displays a remarkable degree of plasticity, from cell autonomous to circuit-based levels. In the literature, the term circadian plasticity has been used to refer to different concepts. The obvious one, the more literally, refers to any change that follows a circadian (circa=around, diem=day) pattern, i.e. a daily change of a given parameter. The discovery of daily remodeling of neuronal structures will be referred herein as structural circadian plasticity, and represents an additional and novel phenomenon modified daily. Finally, any plasticity that has to do with a circadian parameter would represent a type of circadian plasticity; as an example, adjustments that allow organisms to adapt their daily behavior to the annual changes in photoperiod is a form of circadian plasticity at a higher organizational level, which is an emergent property of the whole circadian system. Throughout this work we will revisit these types of changes by reviewing recent literature delving around circadian control of clock outputs, from the most immediate ones within pacemaker neurons to the circadian modulation of rest-activity cycles.
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