Validation of cyclin D1/CDK4 as an anticancer drug target in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: Effect of regulated overexpression of cyclin D1 and siRNA-mediated inhibition of endogenous cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression.
ABSTRACT We have examined the role of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4) in the cell cycle progression and proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Forced expression of cyclin D1 using a tetracycline-regulated expression system, and suppression of endogenous cyclin D1 and CDK4 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) were used to validate this protein complex as a drug target in cancer drug discovery. Overexpression of cyclin D1 increased both phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (RB) and passage through the G1-S phase transition, resulting in increased proliferation of cells. When cyclin D1 expression was shut off, growth rates fell below those seen in control cell lines transfected with the vector, indicating an increased dependence on this protein for proliferation. Inhibition of endogenous cyclin D1 or CDK4 expression by RNA interference resulted in hypophosphorylation of RB and accumulation of cells in G1. These results support the prevailing view that pharmacological inhibition of cyclin D1/CDK4 complexes is a useful strategy to inhibit the growth of tumors. Furthermore, since MCF-7 cells appear to be dependent on this pathway for their continued proliferation, it is a suitable cell line to test novel cyclin D1/CDK4 inhibitors.
SourceAvailable from: Wu Chunfei[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The steam pyrolysis-gasification of biomass, wood sawdust, was carried out with a Ni/MCM-41 catalyst for hydrogen production in a two-stage fixed bed reaction system. The wood sawdust was pyrolysed in the first reactor and the derived products were gasified in the second reactor. The synthesised MCM-41 mesoporous catalyst supports were impregnated with different Ni loadings (5, 10, 20 and 40wt.%), which were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). NiO particles were homogeneously dispersed inside the pores of 5, 10, and 20wt.% Ni/MCM-41 catalysts; however, more bulkly NiO particles (up to 200nm particle size) were detected outside the pores with an increase of the Ni loading up to 40wt.%. Gas production was increased from 40.7 to 62.8wt.%, hydrogen production was increased from 30.1 to 50.6vol.% of total gas composition when the Ni loading was increased from 5 to 40wt.% during the pyrolysis-gasification of wood sawdust. This work showed low coke deposition (from 0.5 to 4.0wt.%) with valuable bio-oil by-products using the Ni/MCM-41 catalyst. The highly efficient conversion of renewable biomass resource to hydrogen and bio-oil with very low coke deposition indicates that biomass gasification on Ni/MCM-41 catalysts via two-stage reaction is a promising method for the development of the biorefinery concept.Applied Catalysis B Environmental 10/2011; 108:6-13. DOI:10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.07.023 · 6.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are deregulated in cancer and have been shown to exhibit both oncogenic and tumor suppressive functions. Although the functional effects of several miRNAs have been elucidated, those of many remain to be discovered. In silico analysis identified microRNA-206 (miR-206) binding sites in the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR) of both the mouse and human CCND1 gene. Cyclin D1 is a recognized oncogene involved in direct phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and promoting cell cycle transition from G1 to S. miR-206 specifically binds to the CCND1 3'-UTR and mediates reduction of both cyclin D1 protein and mRNA. Expression of miR-206 induced a G1 arrest and a decrease in cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Ectopic expression of miRNA-resistant cyclin D1 was able to reverse the miR-206-induced decrease in cell proliferation. Therefore, we identified miR-206 as an activator of cell cycle arrest resulting in a decrease in cell proliferation that is dependent on the inhibition of cyclin D1. Interestingly, prostatic cancer (PCa) cells express low levels of miR-206 resulting in deregulated cyclin D1 expression compared with non-transformed primary prostatic epithelial cells (PrEC). Finally, we demonstrate that cyclin D1 is regulated by miR-206 in PrEC but not in PCa cells and this is due to the absence of a CCND1 3'-UTR in these cells. This suggests that miR-206-based anti-cyclin D1 targeted therapy would be beneficial in cancers where cyclin D1 is overexpressed and contains a 3'-UTR.08/2014; 3(8):e113. DOI:10.1038/oncsis.2014.26
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ABSTRACT: Deregulation of microRNA‑200a (miR‑200a) has been observed in different types of diseases, including cancers. However, the exact roles of miR‑200a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still largely unknown. We aimed to elucidate the prognostic implications of miR‑200a and its biological function in HCC. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate miR‑200a expression. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the protein level. Gain-of-function studies were performed to evaluate the roles of miR‑200a in HCC. Our results revealed that miR‑200a was frequently downregulated in HCC. In addition, multivariate analysis confirmed that miR‑200a was significantly associated with the overall survival of HCC patients. In vitro assays demonstrated that miR‑200a suppressed the proliferation of HCC cells by induction of G1 phase arrest. Furthermore, CDK6 was identified as a novel functional target of miR‑200a. Our data indicate that miR‑200a functions as a potential tumor suppressor in HCC.Oncology Reports 09/2013; 30(5). DOI:10.3892/or.2013.2715 · 2.19 Impact Factor