Temperament and character in mood disorders: influence of DRD4, SERTPR, TPH and MAO-A polymorphisms.
ABSTRACT Gene variants exert a complex range of effects on human normal and abnormal behavior. We previously reported the effect of gene variants in serotoninergic and dopaminergic pathways, in a range of clinical features in mood disorders, such as symptomathology, periodicity, social adjustment and treatment response. In this paper we hypothesized that the same gene variants could influence temperamental traits in mood disorders patients. We focused on genes of the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems (dopamine receptor D4 gene, DRD4; serotonin transporter gene, promoter region SERTPR; tryptophan hydroxylase gene, TPH; monoamine oxidase A gene, MAO-A). Two hundred and seven euthymic subjects, affected by major depressive disorder (n=73) and bipolar disorder (n=134) were assessed by the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and typed using PCR-based analyses. Possible stratification factors such as demographic, clinical and other temperamental factors were also taken into account. We observed that homozygosity for the short SERTPR allele was associated with low novelty-seeking scores (p=0.006) and genotypes containing the DRD4 long allele were marginally associated with low harm avoidance (p=0.05). Finally, the long MAO-A allele was associated with decreased persistence scores among females (p=0.006). Our observation of a pattern of influence on temperamental dimension exerted by serotonergic and dopaminergic genes suggests that the contribution of these polymorphisms to the clinical presentation of mood disorders could be mediated by an influence on personality differences.
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ABSTRACT: Dopamine transporter and its genetic factors have been suggested to play a critical role in the development of bipolar disorder (BPD). However, the importance of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) in the pathogenesis of BPD remains unclear. The aims of this study were to assess 18 polymorphisms of the DAT1 gene to determine whether this gene is associated with BPD and whether it influences personality traits of patients with BPD. DAT1 polymorphisms were analyzed in 492 BPD (374 BPDI and 118 BPDII) patients and 436 controls. All participants were screened using the same assessment tool, and all met the criteria for BPD. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire was used to assess personality traits in both patients and controls. Several polymorphisms had a weak association with BPD, including rs2550948, rs2652511, and rs2975226 in allele distribution analysis (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the promoter G-A-C-G haplotype (rs6350-rs2975226-rs2652511-rs6413429) was over-represented in the BPD patients compared to the controls (P = 0.007). In personality assessment, the BPDII patients had the highest harm avoidance score, followed by the BPDI patients and controls (P = 3.7 × 10(-32)). In addition, a significant association between rs40184 and harm avoidance was found in the patients with BPD. The DAT1 promoter may be associated with vulnerabilities in BPD. The BPD patients had a higher rate of harm avoidance personality traits than the controls, and DAT1 variants may influence personality traits in patients with BPD.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 12/2014; 265(4). DOI:10.1007/s00406-014-0570-0 · 3.36 Impact Factor
Article: A Trio of Concerns[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This essay assesses the two most significant changes in psychology over the past century: the attempt to localize psychological phenomena in restricted brain sites and the search for genetic contributions to behavior and psychopathology. Although there are advantages to these new developments, they are accompanied by some questionable assumptions. Because the investigators in these domains often relate variation in their biological measures to variation in personality traits evaluated with questionnaires, an analysis of the unique properties of the verbal-report questionnaires is presented. It is suggested that future research on human personality should try to combine semantic reports with behaviors and biological data in order to arrive at more fruitful constructs.Perspectives on Psychological Science 12/2007; 2(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00049.x · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is raising major interest clinically because it is associated with various clinical conditions such as delinquency, antisocial behavior, suicide attempts, aggression, and criminal activity. The evolutionary perspective argued that impulsivity relates to self-regulation and it has predicted that female individuals should have evolved a greater ability to inhibit pre-potent responses. There is supportive evidence showing that female individuals have better performance on cognitive tasks measuring impulsivity such as delay in gratification and delayed discounting mainly in childhood. During adolescence, brain imaging studies using diffusion tensor imaging on white matter architecture indicated contrary to the evolutionary perspective hypothesis, that young adolescent male individuals may be less vulnerable than age-matched female individuals to risk- and reward- related maladaptive behaviors. In adults, the results are mixed presumably owing to hormonal effects on neuro-biological mechanisms of reward. Consequently, female individuals were less impulsive than male individuals only during fertile stages of the menstrual cycle. Finally, there is evidence the serotonin (5-HT) system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women. Overall, there seem to be sex differences in impulsivity but these differences are more pronounced in childhood and they are later subject to maturational and hormonal changes during adolescence and adulthood and their effects on the brain, cognition, and behavior.Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 03/2015; 2(1). DOI:10.1007/s40473-015-0031-8 · 3.67 Impact Factor