Several-fold increase in risk of overanticoagulation by CYP2C9 mutations.
ABSTRACT Our objective was to prospectively study the impact of CYP2C9 polymorphism (*2 and *3) on the risk of overanticoagulation during the induction phase of warfarin therapy.
Blood samples for genotyping were collected from 219 patients requiring warfarin therapy, and clinical data were prospectively collected during the first 3 weeks of medication. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to CYP2C9 genotype, as follows: *1 (homozygous), *2 (*1/*2 and *2/*2), and *3 (any genotype containing the *3 allele).
During the first week of treatment, the relative risk of achieving at least 1 international normalized ratio (INR) value above the therapeutic interval (2-3) was 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.7) and 6.1 (2.7-13.6) in the *2 and *3 groups, respectively (with *1 used as control). During the second week, the corresponding values were 2.1 (1.2-3.7) and 3.5 (2.1-5.8), respectively. By the third week, the genetic impact was no longer evident, presumably as a result of successful dose individualization. Increased INR levels (compared with the *1 group) were already demonstrated in the *2 group on the fourth treatment day.
The CYP2C9*2 and *3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms significantly increase the risk of overanticoagulation during the first 2 weeks of warfarin treatment, with increased INR levels evident after only 4 days' treatment in *2 carriers. Our prospective data are consistent with results from previous retrospective studies and indicate that CYP2C9 genotyping may be a means of improving safety during warfarin induction.
- SourceAvailable from: Andreas Windemuth[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) genes significantly alter the effective warfarin dose. We determined the frequencies of alleles, single carriers, and double carriers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes in a Puerto Rican cohort and gauged the impact of these polymorphisms on warfarin dosage using a published algorithm. A total of 92 DNA samples were genotyped using Luminex x-MAP technology. The polymorphism frequencies were 6.52%, 5.43% and 28.8% for CYP2C9 *2, *3 and VKORC1-1639 C>A polymorphisms, respectively. The prevalence of combinatorial genotypes was 16% for carriers of both the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms, 9% for carriers of CYP2C9 polymorphisms, 35% for carriers of the VKORC1 polymorphism, and the remaining 40% were non-carriers for either gene. Based on a published warfarin dosing algorithm, single, double and triple carriers of functionally deficient polymorphisms predict reductions of 1.0-1.6, 2.0-2.9, and 2.9-3.7 mg/day, respectively, in warfarin dose. Overall, 60% of the population carried at least a single polymorphism predicting deficient warfarin metabolism or responsiveness and 13% were double carriers with polymorphisms in both genes studied. Combinatorial genotyping of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 can allow for individualized dosing of warfarin among patients with gene polymorphisms, potentially reducing the risk of stroke or bleeding.Ethnicity & disease 01/2009; 19(4):390-5. · 1.12 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: What is known and objectivePharmacogenetic studies of the genetic regulation of warfarin dose requirement have been reported, but few have been on the bleeding complications at therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gene polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1, thrombomodulin (THBD) and C-reactive protein (CRP) on the risk of bleeding complications of warfarin at therapeutic INR in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. MethodsA retrospective warfarin pharmacogenetic association study was performed. One hundred and forty-two patients with mechanical cardiac valves who were on warfarin anticoagulation therapy and maintained INR levels of 2·0–3·0 for 3 consecutive time intervals were followed up. CYP2C9 rs1057910, VKORC1 rs9934438, CRP rs1205, THBD rs1042580 and THBD rs3176123 were genotyped. The association between genotypes and warfarin bleeding complications was evaluated using logistic regression analysis, adjusted for demographic and clinical factors. Results and discussionOf 142 eligible patients, 21 patients (14·8%) had bleeding complications at therapeutic INR. Patients with the G allele in THBD rs1042580 (AG or GG) had a lower risk of bleeding than patients with the AA genotype (adjusted OR: 0·210, 95% CI: 0·050–0·875, P = 0·032). The THBD rs3176123 polymorphism did not show any association with bleeding. For CRP rs1205, patients with the A allele (GA or AA genotype) had a higher risk of bleeding than patients with the GG genotype (adjusted OR: 5·575, 95% CI: 1·409–22·058, P = 0·014). Variant VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes did not confer a significant increase in the risk for bleeding complications. What is new and conclusionsAs expected, no association could be found between bleeding complications and two dose-related genes (CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 rs9934438). In contrast, our results suggest that two genetic markers (THBD rs1042580 and CRP rs1205) could be predictors of bleeding complications of warfarin at normal INR. Given the retrospective study design and the relatively small sample size, our hypothesis requires further independent validation using more robust prospective designs. However, additional retrospective studies similar to ours but in populations with different genetic backgrounds should also be useful.Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 03/2014; · 2.10 Impact Factor
Article: Warfarin pharmacogenomics.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Warfarin, an anticoagulant, is used to prevent and treat thromboembolic disease. One of the drawbacks of this agent, also known as Coumadin (Bristol-Myers Squibb), is that it is difficult to administer at the correct dose as a result of its narrow therapeutic index, its tendency to cause bleeding, and the individual variability in patient response. Achieving safe and effective doses of warfarin therapy is both an urgent and important concern for many clinicians.Recent research has focused on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes that encode two proteins: the cytochrome P450 2C9 enzyme and VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex). Studies suggest that CYP 2C9 influences warfarin metabolism, whereas VKORC1 plays a role in the pharmacodynamic response in expression of the enzymatic target of warfarin. Patients who carry CYP 2C9*2 and CYP 2C9*3 alleles tend to require lower warfarin maintenance doses because of their slowed metabolism compared with patients who carry the "wild-type" allele. Patients who carry the VKORC1 A haplotype tend to require lower wafarin maintenance doses as a result of a decreased expression of messenger RNA (mRNA), which produces the proteins necessary for the formation of VKORC1.P&T 08/2009; 34(8):422-7. · 1.07 Impact Factor