Several-fold increase in risk of overanticoagulation by CYP2C9 mutations
ABSTRACT Our objective was to prospectively study the impact of CYP2C9 polymorphism (*2 and *3) on the risk of overanticoagulation during the induction phase of warfarin therapy.
Blood samples for genotyping were collected from 219 patients requiring warfarin therapy, and clinical data were prospectively collected during the first 3 weeks of medication. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to CYP2C9 genotype, as follows: *1 (homozygous), *2 (*1/*2 and *2/*2), and *3 (any genotype containing the *3 allele).
During the first week of treatment, the relative risk of achieving at least 1 international normalized ratio (INR) value above the therapeutic interval (2-3) was 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.7) and 6.1 (2.7-13.6) in the *2 and *3 groups, respectively (with *1 used as control). During the second week, the corresponding values were 2.1 (1.2-3.7) and 3.5 (2.1-5.8), respectively. By the third week, the genetic impact was no longer evident, presumably as a result of successful dose individualization. Increased INR levels (compared with the *1 group) were already demonstrated in the *2 group on the fourth treatment day.
The CYP2C9*2 and *3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms significantly increase the risk of overanticoagulation during the first 2 weeks of warfarin treatment, with increased INR levels evident after only 4 days' treatment in *2 carriers. Our prospective data are consistent with results from previous retrospective studies and indicate that CYP2C9 genotyping may be a means of improving safety during warfarin induction.
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ABSTRACT: Warfarin was introduced more than 60 years ago and is used worldwide for the prophylaxis of arterial and venous thromboembolism in primary and secondary prevention. The drug is orally administered as a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-enantiomers. The (S)-form is mainly responsible for the anticoagulant effect and is metabolised by CYP2C9 enzyme in the liver microsomes. Warfarin exerts its pharmacological action by inhibiting the key enzyme (VKORC1) that regenerates vitamin K from an oxidised state to a reduced form. The latter is a cofactor for the post-translational modification of a number of proteins including coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. The vitamin K-dependent modification provides these factors with the calcium-binding ability they require for the interaction with cell membranes of their target cells such as platelets. Warfarin is monitored by measuring prothrombin time (PT) expressed as INR. Two main methods exist for PT analysis. The Owren method is used mainly in the Nordic and Baltic countries, in Japan, whereas the Quick method is employed in most other countries. Warfarin management is associated with some complications. Unlike many other drugs the dose for a given patient cannot be estimated beforehand, dose-response relationship is not predictable, and the prevention of thrombosis must be balanced against the risk of bleeding. Furthermore, the different PT methods used to monitor the drug are sometimes not in agreement and show significant discrepancies in results. In an attempt to clarify the mechanisms influencing the inter-individual variations in warfarin therapy and to detect the factors that contribute to differences between PT methods, studies were conducted in collaboration with hospitals and anticoagulation clinics in the south-eastern region of Sweden. First, a stereo-specific HPLC method for measurement of warfarin enantiomers was developed and validated. With this method, the levels of plasma warfarin following its oral administration can be studied and evaluated. Abnormal clearance in some patients can be detected, and patient compliance can be verified. Furthermore, differing ratios of (S)- and (R)- isomers can be identified. The impact of common VKORC1 polymorphisms on warfarin therapy was investigated. This study has shown that the VKORC1*2 haplotype is an important genetic determinant for warfarin dosage and is associated with difficulties in attaining and retaining therapeutic PT-INR. Further, significant differences in warfarin S/R-ratio was detected between patients with VKORC1*2 and VKORC1*3 or VKORC1*4 variants. This difference was not coupled with CYP2C9 genotype. The effects of predilution of patient plasma samples, sources of thromboplastin and deficient plasma on between PT methods agreement were studied. This study has revealed that sample predilution according to the Owren method is to be preferred for the harmonisation of PT results. Undiluted samples, in contrast, according to the Quick method have shown reduced correlation between two different thromboplastin reagents. Sources of thromboplastin and deficient plasma were only of minor importance.06/2007, Degree: PhD
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ABSTRACT: What is known and objectivePharmacogenetic studies of the genetic regulation of warfarin dose requirement have been reported, but few have been on the bleeding complications at therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gene polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1, thrombomodulin (THBD) and C-reactive protein (CRP) on the risk of bleeding complications of warfarin at therapeutic INR in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. MethodsA retrospective warfarin pharmacogenetic association study was performed. One hundred and forty-two patients with mechanical cardiac valves who were on warfarin anticoagulation therapy and maintained INR levels of 2·0–3·0 for 3 consecutive time intervals were followed up. CYP2C9 rs1057910, VKORC1 rs9934438, CRP rs1205, THBD rs1042580 and THBD rs3176123 were genotyped. The association between genotypes and warfarin bleeding complications was evaluated using logistic regression analysis, adjusted for demographic and clinical factors. Results and discussionOf 142 eligible patients, 21 patients (14·8%) had bleeding complications at therapeutic INR. Patients with the G allele in THBD rs1042580 (AG or GG) had a lower risk of bleeding than patients with the AA genotype (adjusted OR: 0·210, 95% CI: 0·050–0·875, P = 0·032). The THBD rs3176123 polymorphism did not show any association with bleeding. For CRP rs1205, patients with the A allele (GA or AA genotype) had a higher risk of bleeding than patients with the GG genotype (adjusted OR: 5·575, 95% CI: 1·409–22·058, P = 0·014). Variant VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes did not confer a significant increase in the risk for bleeding complications. What is new and conclusionsAs expected, no association could be found between bleeding complications and two dose-related genes (CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 rs9934438). In contrast, our results suggest that two genetic markers (THBD rs1042580 and CRP rs1205) could be predictors of bleeding complications of warfarin at normal INR. Given the retrospective study design and the relatively small sample size, our hypothesis requires further independent validation using more robust prospective designs. However, additional retrospective studies similar to ours but in populations with different genetic backgrounds should also be useful.Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 03/2014; DOI:10.1111/jcpt.12143 · 1.53 Impact Factor