Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents

School of Pharmacy, The Robert Gordon University, Schoolhill, Aberdeen AB10 1FR, UK
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (Impact Factor: 4.3). 12/2005; 26(5):343-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2005.09.002
Source: PubMed


Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

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    • "Their chemical arrangements differ in the hydroxylation, methoxylation, prenylation and glycosylation degrees and patterns (Dai & Mumper, 2010). Cushnie and Lamb (2005, 2011) reviewed the most important aspects of antimicrobial flavonoids. Therefore, in this review we will describe only prenylated flavonoids, with a more specific approach. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phytoalexins and phytoanticipins are plant defence compounds that generally have antimicrobial properties; they include phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, cyanogenic glycosides, oxylipins and al-kaloids, among others. These compounds are highly concentrated in food processing by-products, including peels, seeds, bark, and cereal bran, from which they can be recovered and, excluding those that are toxic, used as plant extracts for food preservation. This would benefit the food industry by generating " clean label " food products, and contribute to mitigate waste disposal problems. The present review describes the occurrence of phytoalexins and phytoanticipins, their enzymatic products, properties , and potential applications as food preservatives.
    International Journal of Food Science & Technology 11/2015; 46:49-59. DOI:10.1016/j.tifs.2015.07.013 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    • "These properties generate the high osmolarity that produces the antimicrobial action (Wahdan, 1998). Honey also contains molecules inhibiting bacterial growth, such as hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase; and also the non-peroxide inhibins also known as phytochemicals composed (Cushnie and Lamb, 2005; Adeleke et al., 2006; Bell, 2007; Montenegro and Mejías, 2013). It is noteworthy to mention that different analysis techniques of honey components may be implemented. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Honey has multiple therapeutic properties due to its composition with diverse components. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of Saharan honeys against bacterial pathogens, the variation of honey floral origins, and its physicochemical characteristics. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of 32 samples of honey collected from the Algerian Sahara Desert was tested on four bacteria; Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. The botanical origin of honeys and their physicochemical properties were determined and their combined antibacterial effects were modeled using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Results: Out of the 32 study samples, 14 were monofloral and 18 were multifloral. The pollen density was on average 7.86 × 106 grains/10 g of honey, water content was 14.6%, electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.5 μS/cm, pH was 4.38 ± 0 50, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 82 mg/kg of honey, total sugars = 83%, reducing sugars = 71%, and the concentration of proline = 525.5 ± 550.2 mg/kg of honey. GLMM revealed that the antibacterial effect of honey varied significantly between bacteria and floral origins. This effect increased with increasing of water content and reducing sugars in honey, but it significantly decreased with increase of honey EC. E. coli was the most sensitive species with an inhibition zone of 10.1 ± 4.7 mm, while C. perfringens was the less sensitive. Honeys dominated by pollen of Fabaceae sp. were most effective with an overall antimicrobial activity equals to 13.5 ± 4.7 mm. Conclusion: Saharan honeys, of certain botanical origins, have physicochemical and pollinic characteristics with relevant potential for antibacterial purposes. This encourages a more comprehensive characterization of honeys with in vivo and in vitro investigations.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10/2015; 6(1239). DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.01239 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "The influence of such factors on secondary metabolites could be the cause of this discordance, but also the difference of sensitivity of the detection method used. At this stage of the work, it is difficult to predict which class of compounds could be responsible for their direct or indirect antimicrobial activity, each class (alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids , saponins and tannins) containing compounds with antimicrobial activity (Bruneton 2009; Comini et al. 2011; Cowan 1999; Cushnie and Lamb 2005; Karou et al. 2005). Concerning the indirect antimicrobial activity, the synergy between at least one compound of each class and b-lactams has already been studied (Cha et al. 2009; HS Kim et al. 1987; Lee et al. 2010; Shiota et al. 2000; Yu et al. 2005). "

    Phytochemistry Reviews 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11101-015-9437-x · 2.41 Impact Factor
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