Chlamydia pneumoniae alters mildly oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced cell death in human endothelial cells, leading to necrosis rather than apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Atherosclerosis is characterized by oxidative stress that induces lipid and protein oxidation in the vascular wall. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are present in lesions, and one of their actions is to induce apoptosis or necrosis in vascular cells. A role for Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerosis has been proposed, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unknown.
The in vitro effect of C. pneumoniae infection on apoptosis induced by mildly oxidized LDLs (moxLDLs) in human endothelial cells was studied.
Infection inhibited apoptosis, as was demonstrated by a decrease in such apoptotic features as cytochrome c release, caspase activity, 89-kilodalton poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fragment formation, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and DNA fragmentation. However, the inhibition of apoptosis did not favor cell survival, because infection promoted cell death with necrotic features, as was illustrated by an increase in lactate dehydrogenase release, an enhancement of necrotic cellular morphological characteristics, and generation of low-molecular-mass PARP fragments. The increase in occurrence of necrosis-like cell death was correlated with a strong increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration. Vitamin E inhibited ROS production and promoted cell survival, underscoring the involvement of ROS in cell death induced by the combination of C. pneumoniae and moxLDLs.
C. pneumoniae infection enhances the inflammatory action of oxLDLs in the vascular wall, leading to cell necrosis rather than apoptosis.
Article: Inhibition of apoptosis in neuronal cells infected with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is an intracellular bacterium that has been identified within cells in areas of neuropathology found in Alzheimer disease (AD), including endothelia, glia, and neurons. Depending on the cell type of the host, infection by C. pneumoniae has been shown to influence apoptotic pathways in both pro- and anti-apoptotic fashions. We have hypothesized that persistent chlamydial infection of neurons may be an important mediator of the characteristic neuropathology observed in AD brains. Chronic and/or persistent infection of neuronal cells with C. pneumoniae in the AD brain may affect apoptosis in cells containing chlamydial inclusions. SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells were infected with the respiratory strain of C. pneumoniae, AR39 at an MOI of 1. Following infection, the cells were either untreated or treated with staurosporine and then examined for apoptosis by labeling for nuclear fragmentation, caspase activity, and membrane inversion as indicated by annexin V staining. C. pneumoniae infection was maintained through 10 days post-infection. At 3 and 10 days post-infection, the infected cell cultures appeared to inhibit or were resistant to the apoptotic process when induced by staurosporine. This inhibition was demonstrated quantitatively by nuclear profile counts and caspase 3/7 activity measurements. These data suggest that C. pneumoniae can sustain a chronic infection in neuronal cells by interfering with apoptosis, which may contribute to chronic inflammation in the AD brain.BMC Neuroscience 02/2008; 9:13. · 3.04 Impact Factor
Article: N-acetylcysteine synergizes with oseltamivir in protecting mice from lethal influenza infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many studies have shown that oxidative stress is important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary damage during influenza virus infections. Antioxidant molecules are therefore potentially useful against viral infection. Our previous studies show that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has a protective effect in a model of lethal influenza infection in mice. NAC administration significantly decreased the mortality in infected mice. Further studies have demonstrated that NAC enhanced survival in combination with the antiviral agent ribavirin. In the present study, we report the effect of combined treatment with NAC and Oseltamivir, clinically used in the treatment and prevention of influenza virus infection, in a murine model of lethal influenza infection. NAC was given as a single daily dose of 1000 mg/kg starting from 4 h before infection and until day 4 after infection; Oseltamivir was given twice daily at dose of 1 mg/kg/die for 5 days, starting from 4 h before infection. End-point evaluation was 21-days survival. NAC alone was slightly effective (20%), since a suboptimal treatment was used. Survival increased to 60% with Oseltamivir and to 100% with Oseltamivir and NAC used in combination. Since NAC alone does not show any antiviral action, the present findings suggest that antioxidant therapy increase survival by an improvement in host defense mechanisms, and/or by a direct antioxidant effect against oxidative stress associated with viral infection. Our studies demonstrate the effectiveness of combining agents acting through different mechanisms, such as antiviral drugs oseltamivir and the antioxidant NAC, indicating a possible advantage of combining the two treatments.International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 20(2):349-54. · 2.99 Impact Factor