A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality.
ABSTRACT In March 2003, several hospitals in Quebec, Canada, noted a marked increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
In 2004 we conducted a prospective study at 12 Quebec hospitals to determine the incidence of nosocomial C. difficile-associated diarrhea and its complications and a case-control study to identify risk factors for the disease. Isolates of C. difficile were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and analyzed for binary toxin genes and partial deletions in the toxin A and B repressor gene tcdC. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated in a subgroup of isolates.
A total of 1703 patients with 1719 episodes of nosocomial C. difficile-associated diarrhea were identified. The incidence was 22.5 per 1000 admissions. The 30-day attributable mortality rate was 6.9 percent. Case patients were more likely than matched controls to have received fluoroquinolones (odds ratio, 3.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.3 to 6.6) or cephalosporins (odds ratio, 3.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6). A predominant strain, resistant to fluoroquinolones, was found in 129 of 157 isolates (82.2 percent), and the binary toxin genes and partial deletions in the tcdC gene were present in 132 isolates (84.1 percent).
A strain of C. difficile that was resistant to fluoroquinolones and had binary toxin and a partial deletion of the tcdC gene was responsible for this outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. Exposure to fluoroquinolones or cephalosporins was a risk factor.
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ABSTRACT: In hospitals, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) surveillance relies on unvalidated guidelines or threshold criteria to identify outbreaks. This can result in false-positive and -negative cluster alarms. The application of statistical methods to identify and understand CDI clusters may be a useful alternative or complement to standard surveillance techniques. The objectives of this study were to investigate the utility of the temporal scan statistic for detecting CDI clusters and determine if there are significant differences in the rate of CDI cases by month, season, and year in a community hospital.BMC Infectious Diseases 05/2014; 14(1):254. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States; however, few patients will develop fulminant C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), necessitating an urgent operative intervention. Mortality for patients who require operative intervention is very high, up to 80% in some series. Since there is no consensus in the literature regarding the best operative treatment for this disease, we sought to answer the following:PICO [population, intervention, comparison, and outcome] Question 1: In adult patients with CDAD, does early surgery compared with late surgery, as defined by the need for vasopressors, decrease mortality?PICO Question 2: In adult patients with CDAD, does total abdominal colectomy (TAC) compared with other types of surgical intervention decrease mortality?The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 06/2014; 76(6):1484-93. · 2.35 Impact Factor