Endoscopic treatment of congenital H-Type and recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula with electrocautery and histoacryl glue.
ABSTRACT Congenital H-Type tracheoesophageal fistulae (H-Type TEF) and recurrent fistulae after primary repair of esophageal atresia represent a difficult problem in diagnosis and management. The treatment traditionally involved an open technique via a cervical or thoracic route, approaches with high morbidity and mortality rates of up to 50%. Endoscopic closure of fistulae has been reported with various techniques such as tissue adhesives, electrocautery, sclerosants and laser. However, the published case series contain a small number of patients with usually short-term follow-up. The aim of this paper is to present the experience of a decade at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children, using diathermy and histoacryl tissue adhesive and discuss the indications and limitations of this technique.
Since 1995, 192 patients have been managed in this institution with tracheoesophageal fistulae of which 10 patients have been treated endoscopically. The fistulae were both of H-Type and recurrent tracheoesophageal fistulae following surgery for esophageal atresia and fistula division. One fistula occurred following trauma. The procedure was undertaken under general anesthesia in the image guided therapy suite under fluoroscopic control. Flexible ball electrocautery and injection of histoacryl glue were used either on their own or in combination.
Fistula closure was achieved in 9 out of 10 fistulae. Four patients had a second endoscopic procedure. No major respiratory or other complications were encountered in association with the procedure. Follow-up has been between 3 months and 9 years.
We conclude, endoscopic treatment of tracheoesophageal fistulae with electrocautery and histoacryl glue has been a safe and successful technique of managing H-Type and recurrent tracheoesophageal fistulae. In this paper, we discuss the indications and the surgical steps of the procedure. We highlight that diathermy should be carefully controlled and applied preferably in the small non-patulous fistulae. A fistula that has not closed after two endoscopic attempts is not suitable for further endoscopic treatment and therefore an external approach should be recommended.
- The Laryngoscope 02/2014; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tracheostomy tube might cause tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) due to high cuff pressure or direct mechanical trauma. Surgical repair provides the ideal way to deal with TEF but it necessitates the weaning the patient from mechanical ventilation. Here we report a spontaneous closure of TEF by managing it with improved tracheal catheters in a patient who is dependent on mechanical ventilation.International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 01/2014; 7(7):1910-3. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction The management of a recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula (RTEF) includes either open surgery (OS) or an endoscopic treatment (ET); the ideal option is unclear. We aim to comparatively review all published treatment options, and outcomes, for managing RTEF. Materials and Methods A literature search was performed using the keywords "recurrent tracheoesophageal fistula." All English language articles describing the management of RTEF in children were reviewed. A synthesis of the relevant data is presented in a descriptive form due to the heterogeneity of the included articles. Results A total of 44 papers between 1955 and 2013 described 165 patients; 57 ET and 108 OS. Of the 57 ET patients, there was an 84% success rate compared with 93.5% of 108 OS patients; the failed ET cases were all successfully treated by OS. The refistulation rate after OS was 21% and an average of 1.1 (range 1-2) procedures were required. After ET, the refistulation rate was 63% and an average of 2.1 (range 1-6) treatments were required for success; these results were reported after a maximum follow-up of 9 years and 23 years for ET and OS, respectively. The major complications after OS were 17 (16%) leaks and 4 (3.7%) deaths, while for ET 3 (5%) suffered respiratory distress postoperatively and there was 1 (1.7%) death. Conclusion OS for RTEF has a low morbidity and mortality, a higher success rate, and requires fewer treatments than an endoscopic repair. The ideal ET is undecided but it remains a viable alternative provided treatment failures are anticipated and prompt redo treatments initiated to prevent ongoing respiratory morbidity.European Journal of Pediatric Surgery 03/2014; · 0.84 Impact Factor