Congenital H-Type tracheoesophageal fistulae (H-Type TEF) and recurrent fistulae after primary repair of esophageal atresia represent a difficult problem in diagnosis and management. The treatment traditionally involved an open technique via a cervical or thoracic route, approaches with high morbidity and mortality rates of up to 50%. Endoscopic closure of fistulae has been reported with various techniques such as tissue adhesives, electrocautery, sclerosants and laser. However, the published case series contain a small number of patients with usually short-term follow-up. The aim of this paper is to present the experience of a decade at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children, using diathermy and histoacryl tissue adhesive and discuss the indications and limitations of this technique.
Since 1995, 192 patients have been managed in this institution with tracheoesophageal fistulae of which 10 patients have been treated endoscopically. The fistulae were both of H-Type and recurrent tracheoesophageal fistulae following surgery for esophageal atresia and fistula division. One fistula occurred following trauma. The procedure was undertaken under general anesthesia in the image guided therapy suite under fluoroscopic control. Flexible ball electrocautery and injection of histoacryl glue were used either on their own or in combination.
Fistula closure was achieved in 9 out of 10 fistulae. Four patients had a second endoscopic procedure. No major respiratory or other complications were encountered in association with the procedure. Follow-up has been between 3 months and 9 years.
We conclude, endoscopic treatment of tracheoesophageal fistulae with electrocautery and histoacryl glue has been a safe and successful technique of managing H-Type and recurrent tracheoesophageal fistulae. In this paper, we discuss the indications and the surgical steps of the procedure. We highlight that diathermy should be carefully controlled and applied preferably in the small non-patulous fistulae. A fistula that has not closed after two endoscopic attempts is not suitable for further endoscopic treatment and therefore an external approach should be recommended.
"Literature reports up to 50% overall morbidity and mortality in surgical reintervention for tracheoesophageal fistula after esophageal atresia repair in children . In our case, with a patient in very good general condition, a well localized fistula with small fistular orifices and no sign of large adjacent necrosis, an endoscopic approach was our first management approach. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gastro-tracheal fistula following esophagectomy for cancer is a rare but potentially lethal complication. We report the successful surgical closure after failed endoscopic treatment, of a gastro-tracheal fistula following esophago-gastrectomy for cancer after induction chemo-radiotherapy.
A 58 year-old male patient presented with a distal third uT3N1 carcinoma of the esophagus. After induction chemo-radiotherapy, he underwent an esophago-gastrectomy with radical lymphadenectomy and reconstruction by gastric pull-up. Immediate postoperative outcome was uneventful. On the 15th postoperative day however, our patient was readmitted in the Intensive Care Unit with severe bilateral basal pneumonia. Three days later a gastro-tracheal fistula was diagnosed upon gastroscopy and bronchoscopy. His good general condition allowed for an endoscopic primary approach which consisted in the insertion of a covered stent in the trachea along with clipping and glueing of the gastric fistular orifice. Two attempts proved unsuccessful.
After several weeks of conservative measures, surgical re-intervention through a right thoracotomy with transection of the fistula and closure by primary interrupted sutures of both fistular orifices along with intercostal muscle flap interposition led to excellent patient outcome. Oral feeding was started and our patient was discharged.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 11/2009; 4(1):69. DOI:10.1186/1749-8090-4-69 · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal anatomy, embryology, and congenital anomalies of the esophagus are discussed in this article. The classification, epidemiology, embryology, diagnosis, and management, including outcome following repair of esophageal atresia with or without an associated tracheoesophageal fistula, are described. The diagnosis and management of less common anomalies, such as congenital esophageal stenosis and congenital esophageal duplication, are outlined.
Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 03/2007; 40(1):219-44, viii. DOI:10.1016/j.otc.2006.10.010 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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