Gene expression of cytokines and growth factors in the lungs after paraquat administration in mice.
ABSTRACT It is well known that the intake of paraquat (PQ), an herbicide, causes severe lung injury at chronic phases. We examined the intrapulmonary gene expression of cytokines and growth factors after PQ administration. To induce lung injury, C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected twice a week with 20 mg/kg of PQ. Histopathologically, at the early phase, lots of alveolar spaces contained edematous fluid. At 3 weeks after PQ challenge, a marked thickening of the alveolar walls with the accumulation of macrophages and T cells was found. Azan staining revealed the patchy distribution of collagen accumulation, indicating pulmonary fibrosis. Consistently, intrapulmonary hydroxyproline contents were significantly elevated, compared with the controls. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were significantly increased at 3 weeks after PQ challenge compared with the controls. The mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-2 was significantly enhanced at 1 and 2 weeks after PQ treatment, respectively. Moreover, PQ-treated mice showed enhanced gene expression of fibrogenic growth factors such as transforming growth factor-beta, platelet-derived growth factor-A, acidic fibroblast growth factor, and hepatoctyte growth factor at 2 and/or 3 weeks after PQ challenge. The synergistic effects of these molecules are presumed to cause pulmonary fibrosis due to PQ challenge.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary fibrosis is the end point of a chronic inflammatory process characterized by leukocyte recruitment and activation, fibroblast proliferation, and increased extracellular matrix production. Previous studies of models of pulmonary fibrosis have investigated the role of cytokines in the evolution of the fibrotic response. The involvement of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 in bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has been well established, suggesting that cytokines mediate the initiation and maintenance of chronic inflammatory lesions. However, the aforementioned cytokines alone cannot account for the recruitment and activation of specific leukocyte populations found in the bleomycin model. Recently, a family of novel proinflammatory cytokines (chemokines) was cloned and characterized, yielding many putative mediators of leukocyte functions. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) belong to the C-C chemotactic cytokine family, a group of low-molecular-weight peptides. These molecules modulate chemotaxis, proliferation, and cytokine expression in leukocyte subsets. Our group has investigated the roles of MCP-1 and MIP-1 alpha in the bleomycin model. Both MCP-1 and MIP-1 alpha are expressed in a time-dependent manner after bleomycin challenge, and passive immunization of these animals with either anti-MIP-1 alpha or anti-MCP-1 antibodies attenuated leukocyte accumulation. In addition, we have identified specific cell types expressing MCP-1 or MIP-1 alpha by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical localization, respectively. Furthermore, our results indicate that MIP-1 alpha expression is mediated by alveolar macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor, identifying an important cytokine pathway in the initiation of pulmonary fibrosis. Finally, anti-MIP-1 alpha therapy attenuated fibrosis, providing direct evidence for its involvement in fibrotic pathology. Our work has clearly established that the C-C chemokines MCP-1 and MIP-1 alpha are expressed and contribute to the initiation and maintenance of the bleomycin-induced pulmonary lesion.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 06/1995; 57(5):782-7. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The deposition of silica particles in the lung of man or experimental animals leads to silicosis, a disease of progressive respiratory failure caused by a fibrotic reaction. It has long been suspected that the phagocytosis of silica by pulmonary macrophages induces the secretion of fibrogenic factors. Several potentially fibrogenic cytokines released by macrophages have been identified, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Here we show that TNF plays an important part in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice in that (1) a single instillation of silica leads to a marked increase in the level of lung TNF messenger RNA which lasts for greater than 70 days, while there are no obvious changes in the amounts of IL-1 alpha or TGF-beta mRNAs; and (2) silica-induced collagen deposition is almost completely prevented by anti-TNF antibody, but is significantly increased by continuous infusion of mouse recombinant TNF.Nature 04/1990; 344(6263):245-7. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent growth factor for various epithelial cells including mature hepatocytes and renal tubular cells. When 70% of the rat liver was excised, HGF mRNA in the intact lung markedly increased at 6 h later, then decrease to normal levels at 24 h. A similar marked increase of HGF mRNA was found in the lung of rats with hepatitis induced by CCl4. Moreover HGF mRNA in the intact lung also increased to about a 5 times higher level than the normal, within 12 h after unilateral nephrectomy. Isolated alveolar macrophages significantly expressed HGF mRNA, yet the amount remained unchanged after injury of the liver. The marked increase of HGF mRNA in lungs of partially hepatectomized rats remained even after removal of alveolar macrophages. In situ hybridization showed a marked increase of HGF mRNA signal found in endothelial cells in the lung after partial hepatectomy. We postulate that endothelial cells in the lung recognize damage of distal organs through a mediator and that lung-derived HGF may contribute to tissue repair or regeneration of injured organs, through endocrine-related mechanisms.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/1992; 182(2):802-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor