Radiocesium reaction with illite and organic matter in marine sediment.
ABSTRACT The mineralogical effect on the (137)Cs reaction with marine sediment has not been systematically studied yet, even though illite has been known to adsorb Cs preferentially on its frayed edge sites in a low Cs concentration. Ninety-three marine sediment samples were collected near Yangnam, Korea for quantitative X-ray-diffraction (XRD), gamma-ray, and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Illite content was in the range of 0-23 wt.% and those of (137)Cs and TOC were minimum detectable activity (MDA) approximately 7.19 Bq/kg-dry and approximately 3.32%, respectively. The illite content in the marine sediment showed a good relationship with the (137)Cs content (R(2)=0.69), but with an increase in the illite content, the relationship became less linear. This trend can be clearly shown in two groups of samples with different size fractions (< and >5Mdvarphi). For the samples of larger particle sizes (low contents of illite), the relationship is linear, but for the samples of the smaller particle sizes (high illite content) it is less linear with a decreased slope, indicating that increase in illite content does not significantly contribute to the fixation of (137)Cs in marine sediment. Rather, the TOC has a more linear relationship with (137)Cs content with no slope change in all particle size ranges. This may indicate that humic materials in marine sediment block the access of (137)Cs to the frayed edge site and reduces the adsorption of (137)Cs on illite and that the organic materials in marine sediment play more important roles in adsorbing Cs than illite.
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ABSTRACT: The interaction between heavy metals and river sediment is very important because river sediment is the sink for heavy metals introduced into a river and it can be a potential source of pollutants when environmental conditions change. The Kumho River, the main tributaries of the Nakdong River in Korea, can be one of the interesting research targets in this respect, because it runs through different geologic terrains with different land use characteristics in spite of its short length. Various approaches were used, including mineralogical, geochemical, and statistical analyses to investigate the distribution and behavior of heavy metals in the sediments and their sources. The effect of geological factor on the distribution of these metals was also studied. No noticeable changes in the species or relative amounts of minerals were observed by quantitative X-ray diffraction in the sediments at different stations along the river. Only illite showed a significant correlation with concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments. Based on an average heavy metal concentration (the average concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 1.67, 20.9, 99.7, 125, 97.6, 149, 298ppm, respectively), the sediments of the Kumho River were classified as heavily polluted according to EPA guidelines. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments were as follows: Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cr>Co>Cd. In contrast, contamination levels based on the average I geo (index of geoaccumulation) values were as follows: Pb>Cd>Zn>Cu>Co=Cr>Ni. The concentrations of heavy metals increased downstream (with the exception of Cd and Pb) and were highest near the industrial area, indicating that industrial activity is the main factor in increasing the concentrations of most heavy metals at downstream stations. Sequential extraction results, which showed increased heavy metal fractions bound to Fe/Mn oxides at the downstream stations, confirmed anthropogenic pollution. The toxicity of heavy metals such as Ni, Cu, and Zn, represented by the exchangeable fraction and the fraction bound to carbonate, also increased at the downstream stations near the industrial complexes. Statistical analysis showed that Pb and Cd, the concentrations of which were relatively high at upstream stations, were not correlated with other heavy metals, indicating other possible sources such as mining activity. KeywordsKumho River-Heavy metal-Sediment-Mineral composition-Sequential extractionEnvironmental earth sciences 60(5):943-952. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The controlling factors affecting the accumulation of (137)Cs in marine sediment have not been investigated in detail, especially in coarse grained sediment. Eighty eight coarse marine sediment samples near Wuljin, Korea, were characterized by quantitative X-ray-diffraction (XRD), gamma-ray, and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Those factors were then compared. The grain size was in the range of -0.48 to 3.6Mdphi corresponding to sand grains. TOC content was in the range of 0.06-1.75%, and the concentration of (137)Cs was <MDA to 4.0Bq/kg-dry. The main identified minerals were general rock-forming minerals such as quartz, feldspars with minor contents of pyroxene, calcite, hornblende, a 10A phase of phyllosilicate assigned to biotite, and chlorite. Other clay minerals were not identified due to the large grain sizes of the investigated samples. Biotite (1-7wt%) was the only mineral showing a positive correlation with (137)Cs activity, which was first reported here, probably due to the weathered frayed edge site of biotite produced by a release of K. The samples with low TOC contents showed even better correlation between biotite content and (137)Cs activity. For the entire samples, however, the TOC content showed better correlation with (137)Cs activity than other single factors, indicating that biotite and organic carbon are the most important factors controlling (137)Cs fixation. The combined effect of biotite and TOC for (137)Cs fixation was also confirmed by multiple regression analysis ((137)Cs activity=1.712.TOC (wt%)+0.202.biotite (wt%)-0.097; R(2)=0.819). The regressed slopes indicated that the (137)Cs-adsorption capacity of TOC was about 8.5 times higher than that of biotite. However, the amount of (137)Cs adsorbed onto biotite was 30% more than that adsorbed onto TOC due to much greater biotite content in the sediment. The role of biotite in fixing (137)Cs becomes more important in sediment with coarser grains, containing little TOC.Marine Pollution Bulletin 09/2007; 54(9):1341-50. · 2.53 Impact Factor
- CIESM; 01/2010