Linoleic acid, but not oleic acid, upregulates production of interleukin-8 by human vascular smooth muscle cells via arachidonic acid metabolites under conditions of oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT Preeclampsia is associated with oxidative stress, elevated plasma levels of linoleic acid (LA), and increased vascular smooth muscle expression of the inflammatory chemokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8). We hypothesized that increased levels of LA under conditions of oxidative stress would increased production of IL-8 by vascular smooth muscle cells because LA is the dietary precursor to arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites that mediate inflammation. We also hypothesized that oleic acid (OA), which is not metabolized to AA metabolites, would not increase IL-8 under conditions of oxidative stress.
To test this hypothesis, we cultured placental arterial smooth muscle (PASM) cells with an oxidizing solution enriched with LA (OxLA) or OA (OxOA). Media concentrations were analyzed for IL-8 and AA metabolites. Inhibitors were used to block the lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways.
Exposure of cells to OxLA, but not to OxOA, significantly increased production of IL-8. OxLA also significantly increased production of AA metabolites. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of the lipoxygenase pathway, blocked IL-8 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production induced by OxLA, whereas indomethacin, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, blocked IL-8, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated gene expression in PASM cells for representative lipoxygenase (LTB4) and cyclooxygenase (thromboxane) metabolite receptors.
PASM cells produced IL-8 in response to LA, but not OA, under conditions of oxidative stress. The IL-8 response was mediated by AA metabolites.
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ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia has many characteristics similar to the metabolic syndrome. One of these is aberrant lipid metabolism. We studied free fatty acid (FFA) profiles at baseline and after oral glucose load in 21 preeclamptic and 11 normotensive pregnant women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test. We found that serum total FFA concentrations at baseline were 67% higher in preeclamptic than in normotensive pregnancies (P=0.0002). The difference between the two groups was largest in the concentrations of oleic (75%), linoleic (129%) and arachidonic (315%) acids. Oral intake of glucose suppressed total FFA in preeclamptic women by 40% (95% CI 32.1-46.1%, P<0.0001) but only 24% in control women (95% CI 0.01-42.0%, P=0.045). Insulin sensitivity, which in preeclamptic women was 37% lower (P=0.009), was unrelated to total or any individual FFA concentration. We concluded that preeclamptic women have higher circulating FFA concentrations, which despite insulin resistance are suppressed by oral glucose loading.Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 07/2009; 81(1):17-21. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent emerging cell-based therapies for diabetes and associated complications. Ongoing clinical trials are using exogenous MSC to treat type 1 and 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-healing wounds due to diabetes. The majority of these trials are aimed at exploiting the ability of these multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells to release soluble mediators that reduce inflammation and promote both angiogenesis and cell survival at sites of tissue damage. Growing evidence suggests that MSC secretion of soluble factors is dependent on tissue microenvironment. Despite the contribution of fatty acids to the metabolic environment of type 2 diabetes, almost nothing is known about their effects on MSC secretion of growth factors and cytokines. In this study, human bone marrow-derived MSC were exposed to linoleic acid, an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, or oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, for seven days in the presence of 5.38 mM glucose. Outcomes measured included MSC proliferation, gene expression, protein secretion and chemotaxis. Linoleic and oleic acids inhibited MSC proliferation and altered MSC expression and secretion of known mediators of angiogenesis. Both unsaturated fatty acids induced MSC to increase secretion of interleukin-6, VEGF and nitric oxide. In addition, linoleic acid but not oleic acid induced MSC to increase production of interleukin-8. Collectively these data suggest that exposure to fatty acids may have functional consequences for MSC therapy. Fatty acids may affect MSC engraftment to injured tissue and MSC secretion of cytokines and growth factors that regulate local cellular responses to injury.Journal of Cellular Physiology 11/2011; 227(9):3225-33. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is characterized by increased thromboxane and decreased prostacyclin levels, which predate symptoms, and can explain some of the clinical manifestations of preeclampsia, including hypertension and thrombosis. In this study, we examined DNA methylation of the promoter region of the thromboxane synthase gene (TBXAS1) and the expression of thromboxane synthase in systemic blood vessels of normal pregnant and preeclamptic women. Thromboxane synthase is responsible for the synthesis of thromboxane A(2), a potent vasoconstrictor and activator of platelets. We also examined the effect of experimentally induced DNA hypomethylation on the expression of thromboxane synthase in a neutrophil-like cell line (HL-60 cells) and in cultured vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. We found that DNA methylation of the TBXAS1 promoter was decreased and thromboxane synthase expression was increased in omental arteries of preeclamptic women as compared with normal pregnant women. Increased thromboxane synthase expression was observed in vascular smooth muscles cells, endothelial cells, and infiltrating neutrophils. Experimentally induced DNA hypomethylation only increased expression of thromboxane synthase in the neutrophil-like cell line, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α, a neutrophil product, increased its expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Our study suggests that epigenetic mechanisms and release of tumor necrosis factor-α by infiltrating neutrophils could contribute to the increased expression of thromboxane synthase in maternal systemic blood vessels, contributing to the hypertension and coagulation abnormalities associated with preeclampsia.Hypertension 04/2012; 59(6):1249-55. · 6.87 Impact Factor