Three-dimensional cell seeding and growth in radial-flow perfusion bioreactor for in vitro tissue reconstruction.
ABSTRACT Radial-flow perfusion bioreactor systems have been designed and evaluated to enable direct cell seeding into a three-dimensional (3-D) porous scaffold and subsequent cell culture for in vitro tissue reconstruction. However, one of the limitations of in vitro regeneration is the tissue necrosis that occurs at the central part of the 3-D scaffold. In the present study, tubular poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) porous scaffolds with an optimized pore size and porosity were prepared by the lyophilization method, and the effect of different perfusion conditions on cell seeding and growth were compared with those of the conventional static culture. The medium flowed radially from the lumen toward the periphery of the tubular scaffolds. It was found that cell seeding under a radial-flow perfusion condition of 1.1 mL/cm2 x min was effective, and that the optimal flow rate for cell growth was 4.0 mL/cm2 x min. At this optimal rate, the increase in seeded cells in the perfusion culture over a period of 5 days was 7.3-fold greater than that by static culture over the same period. The perfusion cell seeding resulted in a uniform distribution of cells throughout the scaffold. Subsequently, the perfusion of medium and hence the provision of nutrients and oxygen permitted growth and maintenance of the tissue throughout the scaffold. The perfusion seeding/culture system was a much more effective strategy than the conventional system in which cells are seeded under a static condition and cultured in a bioreactor such as a spinner flask.
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ABSTRACT: To date, introduction of gene-modified cells in vivo is still a critical limitation for cell-based gene therapy. In this study, based on tissue engineering techniques, we developed a three-dimensional (3-D) transfection system to be cell-based gene delivery vehicle. Human trophoblast-like ED(27) and fibroblastic NIH3T3 cells were used as model cell lines. Cells were seeded onto PET fibrous matrices and plated on polyethylene terephathalate (PET) films as 2-D transfection control. The cell-matrices and cell-films were transfected with pCMV-betagal and pEGFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter gene vectors using LipofectAmine reagent. Gene expression on 3-D versus 2-D growth surface were investigated. The effects of seeding method, seeding density, porosity of the PET matrix, and culturing time of the cell-matrix complex on cDNA transfection and expression in the 3-D cell-matrix complex were also investigated. The beta-gal assay and GFP detection showed that 3-D transfection promoted a higher gene expression level and longer expression time as compared to 2-D transfection. There existed an optimal initial cell seeding density for gene transfection of 3-D cell-matrix complex. Cells seeded on PET matrices with a lower porosity ( approximately 87%) had higher gene expression activities than cells in the matrices with a higher porosity ( approximately 90%). Also, Higher gene expression levels of beta-gal were obtained for the more uniformly seeded matrices that were seeded with a depth-filtration method. The results from this study demonstrate the potential utility of cells seeded onto 3-D fibrous matrices as cell-based gene delivery vehicle for in vitro study of gene expression or in vivo gene therapy.Tissue Engineering 11/2001; 7(5):585-98. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering of 1- to 5-mm-thick, functional constructs based on cells that cannot tolerate hypoxia for prolonged time periods (e.g., cardiac myocytes) critically depends on our ability to seed the cells at a high and spatially uniform initial density and to maintain their viability and function. We hypothesized that rapid gel-cell inoculation in conjunction with direct medium perfusion through the seeded scaffold would increase the rate, yield, viability, and uniformity of cell seeding. Two cell types were studied: neonatal rat cardiomyocytes for feasibility studies of seeding and cultivation with direct medium perfusion, and C2C12 cells (a murine myoblast cell line) for detailed seeding studies. Cells were seeded at densities corresponding to those normally present in the adult rat heart ([0.5-1] x 10(8) cells/cm(3)), into collagen sponges (13 mm x 3 mm discs), using Matrigel as a vehicle for rapid cell delivery. Scaffolds inoculated with cell-gel suspension were seeded either in perfused cartridges with alternating medium flow or in orbitally mixed Petri dishes. The effects of seeding time (1.5 or 4.5 h), initial cell number (6 or 12 million cells per scaffold), and seeding set-up (medium perfusion at 0.5 and 1.5 mL/min; orbitally mixed dishes) were investigated using a randomized three-factor factorial experimental design with two or three levels and three replicates. The seeding cell yield was consistently high (over 80%), and it appeared to be determined by the rapid gel inoculation. The decrease in cell viability was markedly lower for perfused cartridges than for orbitally mixed dishes (e.g., 8.8 +/- 0.8% and 56.3 +/- 4%, respectively, for 12 million cells at 4.5 h post-seeding). Spatially uniform cell distributions were observed in perfused constructs, whereas cells were mainly located within a thin (100-200 microm) surface layer in dish seeded constructs. Over 7 days of cultivation, medium perfusion maintained the viability and differentiated function of cardiac myocytes, and the constructs contracted synchronously in response to electrical stimulation. Direct perfusion can thus enable seeding of hypoxia-sensitive cells at physiologically high and spatially uniform initial densities and maintain cell viability and function.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 06/2003; 82(4):403-14. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One approach to the tissue engineering of vascular structures is to develop in vitro conditions in order ultimately to fabricate functional vascular tissues before final implantation. In our experiment, we aimed to develop a new combined cell seeding and perfusion system that provides sterile conditions during cell seeding and biomechanical stimuli in order to fabricate autologous human vascular tissue in vitro. The cell seeding and perfusion system is made of Plexiglas and is completely transparent (Berlin Heart, Berlin, Germany; University Hospital Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany). The whole system consists of a cell seeding chamber that can be incorporated into the perfusion system and an air-driven respirator pump connected to the bioreactor. The cell culture medium continuously circulates through a closed-loop system. We thus developed a cell seeding device for static and dynamic seeding of vascular cells onto a polymeric vascular scaffold and a closed-loop perfused bioreactor for long-term vascular conditioning. The cell seeding chamber can be easily connected to the bioreactor, which combines continuous, pulsatile perfusion and mechanical stimulation to the tissue-engineered conduit. Adjusting the stroke volume, the stroke rate, and the inspiration/expiration time of the ventilator allows various pulsatile flows and different levels of pressure. The whole system is a highly isolated cell culture setting, which provides a high level of sterility and a gas supply and fits into a standard humidified incubator. The device can be sterilized by ethylene oxide and assembled with a standard screwdriver. Our newly developed combination of a cell seeding and conditioning device provides sterile conditions and biodynamic stimuli for controlled tissue development and in vitro conditioning of an autologous tissue-engineered vessel.Tissue Engineering 11/2002; 8(5):863-70. · 4.07 Impact Factor