Ionizing radiation enhances therapeutic activity of mda-7/IL-24: overcoming radiation- and mda-7/IL-24-resistance in prostate cancer cells overexpressing the antiapoptotic proteins bcl-xL or bcl-2.
ABSTRACT Subtraction hybridization applied to terminally differentiating human melanoma cells identified mda-7/IL-24, a cytokine belonging to the IL-10 gene superfamily. Adenoviral-mediated delivery of mda-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7) provokes apoptosis selectively in a wide spectrum of cancers in vitro in cell culture, in vivo in human tumor xenograft animal models and in patients with advanced carcinomas and melanomas. In human prostate cancer cells, a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of reactive oxygen species in the apoptotic process has been established. Ectopic overexpression of bcl-xL and bcl-2 prevents these changes including apoptosis induction in prostate tumor cells by Ad.mda-7. We now document that this resistance to apoptosis can be reversed by treating bcl-2 family overexpressing prostate tumor cells with ionizing radiation in combination with Ad.mda-7 or purified GST-MDA-7 protein. Additionally, radiation augments apoptosis induction by mda-7/IL-24 in parental and neomycin-resistant prostate tumor cells. Radiosensitization to mda-7/IL-24 is dependent on JNK signaling, as treatment with the JNK 1/2/3 inhibitor SP600125 abolishes this effect. Considering that elevated expression of bcl-xL and bcl-2 are frequent events in prostate cancer development and progression, the present studies support the use of ionizing radiation in combination with mda-7/IL-24 as a means of augmenting the therapeutic benefit of this gene in prostate cancer, particularly in the context of tumors displaying resistance to radiation therapy owing to bcl-2 family member overexpression.
Article: Historical perspective and recent insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical basis of the antitumor properties of mda-7/IL-24.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A subtraction hybridization approach combined with a differentiation therapy model of human melanoma identified melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7) as a gene upregulated during induction of terminal differentiation. Based on conserved structure, chromosomal location and cytokine-like properties, mda-7, has now been classified as a member of the expanding interleukin (IL)-10 gene family and designated as mda-7/IL-24. Extensive in vitro and in vivo human tumor xenograft studies confirm that mda-7/IL-24 induces apoptosis specifically in tumor cells without harming normal cells. Unique properties of mda-7/IL-24 action also include potent "bystander antitumor" activity, an ability to exert anti-angiogenic effects, immune modulating ability and a capacity to enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and monoclonal antibody therapy. Very recent studies from our groups further reveal autocrine regulation and chemoprevention facilitating properties of mda-7/IL-24. Based on these remarkable antitumor attributes, mda-7/IL-24 was evaluated by intratumoral injection with a replication incompetent adenovirus expressing this gene (Ad.mda-7; INGN 241) in a phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanomas and other advanced solid cancers. mda-7/IL-24 was well tolerated with significant clinical activity. This review highlights our current understanding of the molecular and biochemical basis of mda-7/IL-24 antitumor properties and highlights its potential as a viable gene-based therapy for a wide spectrum of primary and advanced cancers.Cancer biology & therapy 06/2009; 8(5):391-400. · 2.64 Impact Factor
Article: Mechanism of autophagy to apoptosis switch triggered in prostate cancer cells by antitumor cytokine melanoma differentiation-associated gene 7/interleukin-24.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 7 (mda-7)/interleukin-24 (IL-24) is a unique member of the IL-10 gene family, which displays a broad range of antitumor properties, including induction of cancer-specific apoptosis. Adenoviral-mediated delivery by Ad.mda-7 invokes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response that is associated with ceramide production and autophagy in some cancer cells. Here, we report that Ad.mda-7-induced ER stress and ceramide production trigger autophagy in human prostate cancer cells, but not in normal prostate epithelial cells, through a canonical signaling pathway that involves Beclin-1, atg5, and hVps34. Autophagy occurs in cancer cells at early times after Ad.mda-7 infection, but a switch to apoptosis occurs by 48 hours after infection. Inhibiting autophagy with 3-methyladenosine increases Ad.mda-7-induced apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy may be initiated first as a cytoprotective mechanism. Inhibiting apoptosis by overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL increased autophagy after Ad.mda-7 infection. During the apoptotic phase, the MDA-7/IL-24 protein physically interacted with Beclin-1 in a manner that could inhibit Beclin-1 function culminating in apoptosis. Conversely, Ad.mda-7 infection elicited calpain-mediated cleavage of the autophagic protein ATG5 in a manner that could facilitate switch to apoptosis. Our findings reveal novel aspects of the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells that underlie the cytotoxic action of mda-7/IL-24, possibly providing new insights in the development of combinatorial therapies for prostate cancer.Cancer Research 05/2010; 70(9):3667-76. · 7.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pro-apoptotic function of p53 has been well defined in preventing genomic instability and cell transformation. However, the intriguing fact that p53 contributes to a pro-survival advantage of tumor cells under DNA damage conditions raises a critical question in radiation therapy for the 50% human cancers with intact p53 function. Herein, we reveal an anti-apoptotic role of mitochondrial p53 regulated by the cell cycle complex cyclin B1/Cdk1 in irradiated human colon cancer HCT116 cells with p53(+/+) status. Steady-state levels of p53 and cyclin B1/Cdk1 were identified in the mitochondria of many human and mouse cells, and their mitochondrial influx was significantly enhanced by radiation. The mitochondrial kinase activity of cyclin B1/Cdk1 was found to specifically phosphorylate p53 at Ser-315 residue, leading to enhanced mitochondrial ATP production and reduced mitochondrial apoptosis. The improved mitochondrial function can be blocked by transfection of mutant p53 Ser-315-Ala, or by siRNA knockdown of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 genes. Enforced translocation of cyclin B1 and Cdk1 into mitochondria with a mitochondrial-targeting-peptide increased levels of Ser-315 phosphorylation on mitochondrial p53, improved ATP production and decreased apoptosis by sequestering p53 from binding to Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, reconstitution of wild-type p53 in p53-deficient HCT116 p53(-/-) cells resulted in an increased mitochondrial ATP production and suppression of apoptosis. Such phenomena were absent in the p53-deficient HCT116 p53(-/-) cells reconstituted with the mutant p53. These results demonstrate a unique anti-apoptotic function of mitochondrial p53 regulated by cyclin B1/Cdk1-mediated Ser-315 phosphorylation in p53-wild-type tumor cells, which may provide insights for improving the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy, especially for tumors that retain p53.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(8):e12341. · 4.09 Impact Factor