Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies
ABSTRACT Voxel-based morphometry is a method for detecting group differences in the density or volume of brain matter. The authors reviewed the literature on use of voxel-based morphometry in schizophrenia imaging research to examine the capabilities of this method for clearly identifying specific structural differences in patients with schizophrenia, compared with healthy subjects. The authors looked for consistently reported results of relative deficits in gray and white matter in schizophrenia and evaluated voxel-based morphometry methods in order to propose a future strategy for using voxel-based morphometry in schizophrenia research.
The authors reviewed all voxel-based morphometry studies of schizophrenia that were published to May 2004 (15 studies). The studies included a total of 390 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 364 healthy volunteers.
Gray and white matter deficits in patients with schizophrenia, relative to healthy comparison subjects, were reported in a total of 50 brain regions. Deficits were reported in two of the 50 regions in more than 50% of the studies and in nine of the 50 regions in one study only. The most consistent findings were of relative deficits in the left superior temporal gyrus and the left medial temporal lobe. Use of a smaller smoothing kernel (4-8 mm) led to detection of a greater number of regions implicated in schizophrenia.
This review implicates the left superior temporal gyrus and the left medial temporal lobe as key regions of structural difference in patients with schizophrenia, compared to healthy subjects. The diversity of regions reported in voxel-based morphometry studies is in part related to the choice of variables in the automated process, such as smoothing kernel size and linear versus affine transformation, as well as to differences in patient groups. Voxel-based morphometry can be used as an exploratory whole-brain approach to identify abnormal brain regions in schizophrenia, which should then be validated by using region-of-interest analyses.
SourceAvailable from: Kenji Tanigki[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that displays behavioral deficits such as decreased sensory gating, reduced social interaction and working memory deficits. The neurodevelopmental model is one of the widely accepted hypotheses of the etiology of schizophrenia. Subtle developmental abnormalities of the brain which stated long before the onset of clinical symptoms are thought to lead to the emergence of illness. Schizophrenia has strong genetic components but its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Genetic linkage and association studies have identified several genes involved in neuronal migrations as candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, although their effect size is small. Recent progress in copy number variation studies also has identified much higher risk loci such as 22q11. Based on these genetic findings, we are now able to utilize genetically-defined animal models. Here we summarize the results of neurodevelopmental and behavioral analysis of genetically-defined animal models. Furthermore, animal model experiments have demonstrated that embryonic and perinatal neurodevelopmental insults in neurogenesis and neuronal migrations cause neuronal functional and behavioral deficits in affected adult animals, which are similar to those of schizophrenic patients. However, these findings do not establish causative relationship. Genetically-defined animal models are a critical approach to explore the relationship between neuronal migration abnormalities and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia.Frontiers in Neuroscience 01/2015; 9:74. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00074
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Deficits in cortical gray matter (GM) have been found in patients with schizophrenia, with evidence of progression over time. The aim of this study was to determine the role of potential moderators of such changes, in particular of the amount and type of antipsychotic medication intake. METHODS: Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing changes in the volume of cortical GM over time between patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects published between January 1, 1983, and March 31, 2014, were analyzed. Hedges’ g was calculated for each study and volume changes from baseline to follow-up were analyzed. Meta-regression statistics were applied to investigate the role of potential moderators of the effect sizes. RESULTS: Eighteen studies involving 1155 patients with schizophrenia and 911 healthy control subjects were included. Over time, patients with schizophrenia showed a significantly higher loss of total cortical GM volume. This was related to cumulative antipsychotic intake during the interval between scans in the whole study sample. Subgroup meta-analyses of studies on patients treated with second-generation antipsychotics and first-generation antipsychotics revealed a different and contrasting moderating role of medication intake on cortical GM changes: more progressive GM loss correlated with higher mean daily antipsychotic intake in patients treated with at least one first-generation antipsychotic and less progressive GM loss with higher mean daily antipsychotic intake in patients treated only with second-generation antipsychotics. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add useful information to the controversial debate on the brain structural effects of antipsychotic medication and may have both clinical relevance and theoretical implications.Biological Psychiatry 04/2015; · 9.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia. Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure between-group differences, comparing magnetic resonance images of 20 anxious patients, 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 schizophrenic patients with comorbid anxiety, and 20 healthy control subjects. Compared to the schizophrenic patients, we observed smaller grey-matter volume (GMV) decreases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus in the schizophrenic-anxiety group. Additionally, the schizophrenic group showed significantly reduced GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal gyrus and angular/inferior parietal gyrus when compared to the control group. Our findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia might be characterized by specific neuroanatomical and clinical alterations that may be related to maladaptive emotion regulation related to anxiety. Even thought our findings need to be replicated, our study suggests that the identification of neural abnormalities involved in anxiety, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-anxiety may lead to an improved diagnosis and management of these conditions.PLoS ONE 10(3):e0119847. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119847 · 3.53 Impact Factor