Identification and characterization of tandem repeats in exon III of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) genes from different mammalian species.
ABSTRACT In this study we have identified and characterized dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III tandem repeats in 33 public available nucleotide sequences from different mammalian species. We found that the tandem repeat in canids could be described in a novel and simple way, namely, as a structure composed of 15- and 12- bp modules. Tandem repeats composed of 18-bp modules were found in sequences from the horse, zebra, onager, and donkey, Asiatic bear, polar bear, common raccoon, dolphin, harbor porpoise, and domestic cat. Several of these sequences have been analyzed previously without a tandem repeat being found. In the domestic cow and gray seal we identified tandem repeats composed of 36-bp modules, each consisting of two closely related 18-bp basic units. A tandem repeat consisting of 9-bp modules was identified in sequences from mink and ferret. In the European otter we detected an 18-bp tandem repeat, while a tandem repeat consisting of 27-bp modules was identified in a sequence from European badger. Both these tandem repeats were composed of 9-bp basic units, which were closely related with the 9-bp repeat modules identified in the mink and ferret. Tandem repeats could not be identified in sequences from rodents. All tandem repeats possessed a high GC content with a strong bias for C. On phylogenetic analysis of the tandem repeats evolutionary related species were clustered into the same groups. The degree of conservation of the tandem repeats varied significantly between species. The deduced amino acid sequences of most of the tandem repeats exhibited a high propensity for disorder. This was also the case with an amino acid sequence of the human DRD4 exon III tandem repeat, which was included in the study for comparative purposes. We identified proline-containing motifs for SH3 and WW domain binding proteins, potential phosphorylation sites, PDZ domain binding motifs, and FHA domain binding motifs in the amino acid sequences of the tandem repeats. The numbers of potential functional sites varied pronouncedly between species. Our observations provide a platform for future studies of the architecture and evolution of the DRD4 exon III tandem repeat, and they suggest that differences in the structure of this tandem repeat contribute to specialization and generation of diversity in receptor function.
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ABSTRACT: Minisatellites have been found in association with important features of human genome biology such as gene regulation, chromosomal fragile sites, and imprinting. Our knowledge of minisatellite biology has greatly increased in the past 10 years owing to the identification and careful analysis of human hypermutable minisatellites, experimental models in yeast, and recent in vitro studies of minisatellite recombination properties. In parallel, minisatellites have been put forward as potential biomarkers for the monitoring of genotoxic agents such as ionizing radiation. We summarize and discuss recent observations on minisatellites. In addition we take advantage of recent whole chromosome sequence data releases to provide a unifying view which may facilitate the annotation of tandem repeat sequences.Genome Research 08/2000; 10(7):899-907. · 14.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dopamine receptors have been implicated in a variety of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we describe the use of the polymerase chain reaction and low stringency library screening to isolate a rat genomic clone encoding a novel dopamine receptor. Sequence data and pharmacological analysis reveal this clone to be the rat analog of the human D4 receptor, which exhibits a high affinity for the antipsychotic drug clozapine. The mRNA for this receptor shows a restricted pattern of expression in the central nervous system. Significant levels of expression were found in the hypothalamus, thalamus, olfactory bulb, and frontal cortex. However, 20-fold higher levels of D4 mRNA expression were observed in the cardiovascular system. Thus, this receptor appears to mediate dopamine function in the cardiovascular system as well as the central nervous system.The New biologist 03/1992; 4(2):137-46.
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ABSTRACT: A major challenge in the post-genome era will be determination of the functions of the encoded protein sequences. Since it is generally assumed that the function of a protein is closely linked to its three-dimensional structure, prediction or experimental determination of the library of protein structures is a matter of high priority. However, a large proportion of gene sequences appear to code not for folded, globular proteins, but for long stretches of amino acids that are likely to be either unfolded in solution or adopt non-globular structures of unknown conformation. Characterization of the conformational propensities and function of the non-globular protein sequences represents a major challenge. The high proportion of these sequences in the genomes of all organisms studied to date argues for important, as yet unknown functions, since there could be no other reason for their persistence throughout evolution. Clearly the assumption that a folded three-dimensional structure is necessary for function needs to be re-examined. Although the functions of many proteins are directly related to their three-dimensional structures, numerous proteins that lack intrinsic globular structure under physiological conditions have now been recognized. Such proteins are frequently involved in some of the most important regulatory functions in the cell, and the lack of intrinsic structure in many cases is relieved when the protein binds to its target molecule. The intrinsic lack of structure can confer functional advantages on a protein, including the ability to bind to several different targets. It also allows precise control over the thermodynamics of the binding process and provides a simple mechanism for inducibility by phosphorylation or through interaction with other components of the cellular machinery. Numerous examples of domains that are unstructured in solution but which become structured upon binding to the target have been noted in the areas of cell cycle control and both transcriptional and translational regulation, and unstructured domains are present in proteins that are targeted for rapid destruction. Since such proteins participate in critical cellular control mechanisms, it appears likely that their rapid turnover, aided by their unstructured nature in the unbound state, provides a level of control that allows rapid and accurate responses of the cell to changing environmental conditions.Journal of Molecular Biology 11/1999; 293(2):321-31. · 3.91 Impact Factor