Direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray data acquired with a mobile propeller C-arm: accuracy and application in functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
ABSTRACT Recently, three-dimensional (3D) rotational x-ray imaging has been combined with navigation technology, enabling direct 3D navigation for minimally invasive image guided interventions. In this study, phantom experiments are used to determine the accuracy of such a navigation set-up for a mobile C-arm with propeller motion. After calibration of the C-arm system, the accuracy is evaluated by pinpointing divots on a special-purpose phantom with known geometry. This evaluation is performed both with and without C-arm motion in between calibration and registration for navigation. The variation caused by each of the individual transformations in the calibration and registration process is also studied. The feasibility of direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray images for functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been evaluated in a cadaver navigation experiment. Navigation accuracy was approximately 1.0 mm, which is sufficient for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. C-arm motion in between calibration and registration slightly degraded the registration accuracy by approximately 0.3 mm. Standard deviations of each of the transformations were in the range 0.15-0.31 mm. In the cadaver experiment, the navigation images were considered in good correspondence with the endoscopic images by an experienced ENT surgeon. Availability of 3D localization information provided by the navigation system was considered valuable by the ENT surgeon.
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ABSTRACT: Conventional tracker configurations for surgical navigation carry a variety of limitations, including limited geometric accuracy, line-of-sight obstruction, and mismatch of the view angle with the surgeon's-eye view. This paper presents the development and characterization of a novel tracker configuration (referred to as "Tracker-on-C") intended to address such limitations by incorporating the tracker directly on the gantry of a mobile C-arm for fluoroscopy and cone-beam CT (CBCT). A video-based tracker (MicronTracker, Claron Technology Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada) was mounted on the gantry of a prototype mobile isocentric C-arm next to the flat-panel detector. To maintain registration within a dynamically moving reference frame (due to rotation of the C-arm), a reference marker consisting of 6 faces (referred to as a "hex-face marker") was developed to give visibility across the full range of C-arm rotation. Three primary functionalities were investigated: surgical tracking, generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from the perspective of a tracked tool or the current C-arm angle, and augmentation of the tracker video scene with image, DRR, and planning data. Target registration error (TRE) was measured in comparison with the same tracker implemented in a conventional in-room configuration. Graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated DRRs were generated in real time as an assistant to C-arm positioning (i.e., positioning the C-arm such that target anatomy is in the field-of-view (FOV)), radiographic search (i.e., a virtual X-ray projection preview of target anatomy without X-ray exposure), and localization (i.e., visualizing the location of the surgical target or planning data). Video augmentation included superimposing tracker data, the X-ray FOV, DRRs, planning data, preoperative images, and/or intraoperative CBCT onto the video scene. Geometric accuracy was quantitatively evaluated in each case, and qualitative assessment of clinical feasibility was analyzed by an experienced and fellowship-trained orthopedic spine surgeon within a clinically realistic surgical setup of the Tracker-on-C. The Tracker-on-C configuration demonstrated improved TRE (0.87 ± 0.25) mm in comparison with a conventional in-room tracker setup (1.92 ± 0.71) mm (p < 0.0001) attributed primarily to improved depth resolution of the stereoscopic camera placed closer to the surgical field. The hex-face reference marker maintained registration across the 180° C-arm orbit (TRE = 0.70 ± 0.32 mm). DRRs generated from the perspective of the C-arm X-ray detector demonstrated sub- mm accuracy (0.37 ± 0.20 mm) in correspondence with the real X-ray image. Planning data and DRRs overlaid on the video scene exhibited accuracy of (0.59 ± 0.38) pixels and (0.66 ± 0.36) pixels, respectively. Preclinical assessment suggested potential utility of the Tracker-on-C in a spectrum of interventions, including improved line of sight, an assistant to C-arm positioning, and faster target localization, while reducing X-ray exposure time. The proposed tracker configuration demonstrated sub- mm TRE from the dynamic reference frame of a rotational C-arm through the use of the multi-face reference marker. Real-time DRRs and video augmentation from a natural perspective over the operating table assisted C-arm setup, simplified radiographic search and localization, and reduced fluoroscopy time. Incorporation of the proposed tracker configuration with C-arm CBCT guidance has the potential to simplify intraoperative registration, improve geometric accuracy, enhance visualization, and reduce radiation exposure.International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 04/2012; 7(5):647-65. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional rotational X-ray imaging with the SIREMOBIL Iso-C3D (Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) has become a well-established intra-operative imaging modality. In combination with a tracking system, the Iso-C3D provides inherently registered image volumes ready for direct navigation. This is achieved by means of a pre-calibration procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the tracking system used on the overall navigation accuracy of direct Iso-C3D navigation. Three models of tracking system were used in the study: Two Optotrak 3020s, a Polaris P4 and a Polaris Spectra system, with both Polaris systems being in the passive operation mode. The evaluation was carried out at two different sites using two Iso-C3D devices. To measure the navigation accuracy, a number of phantom experiments were conducted using an acrylic phantom equipped with titanium spheres. After scanning, a special pointer was used to pinpoint these markers. The difference between the digitized and navigated positions served as the accuracy measure. Up to 20 phantom scans were performed for each tracking system. The average accuracy measured was 0.86 mm and 0.96 mm for the two Optotrak 3020 systems, 1.15 mm for the Polaris P4, and 1.04 mm for the Polaris Spectra system. For the Polaris systems a higher maximal error was found, but all three systems yielded similar minimal errors. On average, all tracking systems used in this study could deliver similar navigation accuracy. The passive Polaris system showed – as expected – higher maximal errors; however, depending on the application constraints, this might be negligible.Computer Aided Surgery 11/2010; 15(4-6):104-9. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: C-arm based Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) imaging enables the in-situ acquisition of three dimensional images. In the context of image-guided interventions this technology potentially reduces the complexity of a procedure's workflow. Instead of acquiring the preoperative volumetric images in a separate location and transferring the patient to the interventional suite, both imaging and intervention are carried out in the same location. A key component in image-guided interventions is image to patient registration. The most common registration approach, in clinical use, is based on fiducial markers placed on the patient's skin which are then localized in the volumetric image and in the interventional environment. When using C-arm CBCT this registration approach is challenging as in many cases the small size of the volumetric reconstruction cannot include both the skin fiducials and the organ of interest. In this paper we show that fiducial localization outside of the reconstructed volume is possible if the projection images from which the reconstruction was obtained are available. By replacing direct fiducial localization in the volumetric images with localization in the projection images we obtain the fiducial coordinates in the volume's coordinate system even when the fiducials are outside of the reconstructed region. The approach was evaluated using two anthropomorphic phantoms. When using the projection images all fiducials were localized, including those that were outside the reconstruction volume. The method's maximal localization error as evaluated using fiducials that could be directly localized in the CBCT reconstruction was 0.67 millimeters.Proc SPIE 02/2009;