Quality control guidelines for susceptibility testing of retapamulin (SB-275833) by reference and standardized methods.

Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.23). 01/2006; 43(12):6212-3. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.43.12.6212-6213.2005
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro activity of retapamulin against 106 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 109 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates was evaluated by the agar dilution, broth microdilution, E-test, and disk diffusion methodologies. Where possible, the tests were performed by using the CLSI methodology. The results of agar dilution, broth microdilution, and E-test (all with incubation in ambient air) for S. aureus yielded similar MICs, in the range of 0.03 to 0.25 microg/ml. These values corresponded to zone diameters between 25 and 33 mm by the use of a 2-microg retapamulin disk. Overall, 99% of the agar dilution results and 95% of E-test results for S. aureus were within +/-1 dilution of the microdilution results. For S. pyogenes, the MICs obtained by the agar and broth microdilution methods (both after incubation in ambient air) were in the range of 0.008 to 0.03 microg/ml, and E-test MICs (with incubation in ambient air) were 0.016 to 0.06 microg/ml. For S. pyogenes, 100% of the agar dilution MIC results were within +/-1 dilution of the broth microdilution results. E-test MICs (after incubation in ambient air) were within +/-1 and +/-2 dilutions of the broth microdilution results for 76% and 99% of the isolates, respectively. E-test MICs for S. pyogenes strains in CO(2) were up to 4 dilutions higher than those in ambient air. Therefore, it is recommended that when retapamulin MICs are determined by E-test, incubation be done in ambient air and not in CO(2), due to the adverse effect of CO(2) on the activity of this compound. Diffusion zones (with incubation in CO(2)) for S. pyogenes were 18 to 24 mm. Retapamulin MICs for all strains by all methods (with incubation in ambient air) were < or =0.25 microg/ml. These results demonstrate that S. pyogenes (including macrolide-resistant strains) and S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant and vancomycin-nonsusceptible strains) are inhibited by very low concentrations of retapamulin and that all four testing methods are satisfactory for use for susceptibility testing.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/2006; 50(5):1727-30. DOI:10.1128/AAC.50.5.1727-1730.2006 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retapamulin (SB-275833), the first pleuromutilin to be developed for human topical use, was tested against a selected population of staphylococci and beta-hemolytic streptococci. The MIC90 results for retapamulin were 0.12 microg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and < or = 0.03 microg/ml for Streptococcus pyogenes; no cross-resistance was observed for organism subsets resistant to oxacillin, erythromycin, or mupirocin.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 08/2006; 50(7):2583-6. DOI:10.1128/AAC.01432-05 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New insights into functional flexibility at the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) and its vicinity were obtained by analysis of pleuromutilins binding modes to the ribosome. The crystal structures of Deinococcus radiodurans large ribosomal subunit complexed with each of three pleuromutilin derivatives: retapamulin (SB-275833), SB-280080, and SB-571519, show that all bind to the PTC with their core oriented similarly at the A-site and their C14 extensions pointing toward the P-site. Except for an H-bond network with a single nucleotide, G2061, which involves the essential keto group of all three compounds, only minor hydrophobic contacts are formed between the pleuromutilin C14 extensions and any ribosomal component, consistent with the PTC tolerance to amino acid diversity. Efficient drug binding mode is attained by a mechanism based on induced-fit motions exploiting the ribosomal intrinsic functional flexibility and resulting in conformational rearrangements that seal the pleuromutilin-binding pocket and tightens it up. Comparative studies identified a network of remote interactions around the PTC, indicating that pleuromutilins selectivity is acquired by nonconserved nucleotides residing in the PTC vicinity, in a fashion resembling allosterism. Likewise, pleuromutilin resistant mechanisms involve nucleotides residing in the environs of the binding pocket, consistent with their slow resistance-development rates.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2007; 104(11):4291-6. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0700041104 · 9.81 Impact Factor


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