Methodology of environmental diagnosis for construction and demolition waste landfills: a tool for planning and making decisions.
ABSTRACT Current legislation in the European Union regarding landfills provides measures, procedures and guidance to prevent or reduce, insofar as possible, negative effects on the environment. This means that Member States must take measures so that landfills cannot operate unless the operator first presents a plan for the site, which includes the implementation of improvements considered necessary by the engineer for compliance with regulations. Researchers at the University of Granada have developed a method to ascertain the degree of environmental impact that a construction and demolition waste landfill may produce on its immediate surroundings. This methodology is based on environmental indexes; its objective is to give crucial information concerning possible environmental problems produced by a landfill. The data thus obtained will permit the elaboration of guidelines for improvements in the location, design, and operation of landfills, or in extreme cases, their dosing, sealing, and rehabilitation.
Conference Proceeding: Sensing gluten development during bread dough mixing[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The mean, standard deviation, and low frequency energy calculated from the outputs of a power transducer are used to indicate gluten development during mixing. Since the mean, standard deviation, and low frequency energy all contribute to the indication of gluten development, they can be combined and quantified as a dough mixing index. Using this index, the elapsed mixing time, and the dough temperature, the necessary inputs to a fuzzy logic control system for dough mixing control are provided. The authors discuss the instantaneous input power data acquisition system (DAS) and digital signal processing (DSP) system that was constructed, and employed. The DAS and DSP system and the fuzzy logic control system provide a non-intrusive real-time gluten development sensing and control technique which follows gluten development during mixingInstrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 1993. IMTC/93. Conference Record., IEEE; 06/1993
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ABSTRACT: Municipal waste production in Venezuela and the other Latin American and Caribbean countries continues to increase substantially. Given that uncontrolled management of waste in landfills leads to negative environmental impacts, there is a need to undertake an environmental diagnosis of existing facilities in order to analyse the problems they present and take the necessary measures for reducing adverse effects. The objective of this paper is to study the possibility of applying an environmental diagnosis methodology developed by the University of Granada in order to quantify the environmental impact of urban waste landfills. Seven deposit points located in Estado Lara (Venezuela) were studied. Some modifications in the methodology were introduced to take into account urban waste characteristics and the legal framework in Venezuela. Application of the methodology obtained a series of environmental indexes, making it possible to quantify the impact of the deposit points on the following environmental elements: surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health. The indexes were denominated as follows: Environmental Landfill Interaction Index; Environmental Risk Index; Environmental Value and Probability of Contamination. Analysis of results showed significant operation and design problems in all the landfills. The study also made it possible to compile a catalogue of all the deposit points and draw up a list of priorities for action. In the case of Pavía, a Conditioning Plan is required to improve operation and design. In the remaining six deposit points, each index needs to be studied carefully to determine if a Conditioning Plan is sufficient, or if a Sealing and Closing Plan is required owing to the unsuitable location of the deposit points.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 01/2008;
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ABSTRACT: Construction industry is the most significant fields on a global scale, with respect to its economic, technological, and environmental impact. Its rapid growth over the last decades has resulted in an enormous increase of the produced construction and demolition waste, thus provoking a considerable burden on the environment. The proposed methodological framework is aiming towards optimal location of units of alternative construction and demolition waste management and it is following the path of multicriteria analysis. For the problem under study, ELECTRE III technique is adopted. The decision process presented requires the adoption of a number of logical steps mainly, clarification of the decision criteria for selecting the optimal location (economical, environmental and social), the definition of their relative significance and data assembly. The approach allows a robust parameter analysis in order to evaluate and compare in detail all available alternatives. On top of that, sensitivity analysis is also available, since parameter values in real life applications originate from estimations which are sometimes more or less reliable. This paper presents an effort to interlace local acceptance, financial viability and level of environmental quality which represents a vital issue for the particular waste stream’s management efficiency. The methodology is implemented and demonstrated for the case of the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece and can be employed either by private investors or public authorities in other areas internationally.Building and Environment 01/2010; 45(10):2317-2326. · 2.43 Impact Factor