Leptin is an eosinophil survival factor
ABSTRACT Leptin regulates food intake, as well as metabolic, endocrine, and immune functions. It exerts proliferative and antiapoptotic activities in a variety of cell types, including T cells. Leptin also stimulates macrophages and neutrophils, and its production is increased during inflammation.
We sought to examine the expression of leptin receptors on eosinophils and the effect of recombinant leptin on proapoptotic pathways in these cells.
The presence of leptin receptor was examined by means of RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis in freshly isolated blood eosinophils and tissue eosinophils. The effect of recombinant leptin on apoptotic pathways in eosinophils was studied by using flow cytometric, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence techniques.
Human eosinophils express leptin surface receptors under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and leptin delays apoptosis of mature eosinophils in vitro. The antiapoptotic effects of leptin were concentration dependent and blocked by an anti-leptin receptor mAb. The efficacy of leptin to block eosinophil apoptosis was similar to that of GM-CSF. Leptin delayed the cleavage of Bax, as well as the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase, suggesting that it blocks proapoptotic pathways proximal to mitochondria in eosinophils. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we obtained evidence that leptin initiates a signaling cascade involving phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways in eosinophils.
Leptin is a survival cytokine for human eosinophils, a finding with potential pathologic relevance in allergic and parasitic diseases.
SourceAvailable from: Bao-Ping Tian[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Allergic diseases result from over-reaction of the immune system in response to exogenous allergens, where inflammatory cells have constantly extended longevity and contribute to an on-going immune response in allergic tissues. Here, we review disequilibrium in the death and survival of epithelial cells and inflammatory cells in the pathological processes of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and other allergic diseases.Microbes and Infection 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2014.07.004 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asthma is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils in the airways in most phenotypes. Eosinophils are inflammatory cells that require an external survival-prolonging stimulus such as granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-5, or IL-3 for survival. In their absence, eosinophils are programmed to die by spontaneous apoptosis in a few days. Eosinophil apoptosis can be accelerated by Fas ligation or by pharmacological agents such as glucocorticoids. Evidence exists for the relevance of these survival-prolonging and pro-apoptotic agents in the regulation of eosinophilic inflammation in inflamed airways. Much less is known about the physiological significance and mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis even though it forms the basis of regulation of eosinophil longevity by pathophysiological factors and pharmacological agents. This review concentrates on discussing the mechanisms of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis compared to those of glucocorticoid- and Fas-induced apoptosis. We aim to answer the question whether the external apoptotic stimuli only augment the ongoing pathway of spontaneous apoptosis or truly activate a specific pathway.Journal of Cell Death 02/2014; 7:1-9. DOI:10.4137/JCD.S13588