Article

Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes with fipronil

Department of Animal Biology, Vegetal Biology and Ecology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
Journal of Helminthology (Impact Factor: 1.3). 01/2006; 79(4):333-7. DOI: 10.1079/JOH2005294
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The survival and infectivity of infective juveniles (IJs) of three species of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, S. arenarium (Artyukhovsky) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), were determined after exposure to different concentrations (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm) of fipronil, an insecticide acting on the GABA receptors to block the chloride channel. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was very tolerant to all concentrations of fipronil, with the highest mortality of 17% being observed at 2000 ppm of fipronil after 72 h exposure. Steinernema carpocapsae showed a similar response, with the highest mortality of 11.25% of IJs being observed after 72 h exposure to 2000 ppm of fipronil. Steinernema arenarium was, however, more sensitive to fipronil, and at 2000 ppm mortality rates of 94.6% and 100% were observed after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Fipronil had negligible effects on the infectivity of the three nematode species tested. The IJs which survive exposure to all concentrations of fipronil tested can infect and reproduce in Galleria larvae. The moderate effects on entomopathogenic nematodes of a lower fipronil concentration (250 ppm) and the field rates (12-60 ppm) of fipronil used as insecticide, suggest that direct mixing of entomopathogenic nematodes and fipronil at field rates is a viable integrated pest management option.

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    • "Similar SSDs for fipronil were also found between cladocerans and other aquatic organisms (Hayasaka et al. 2012c). In contrast with the high toxicity of this insecticide to arthropods, fipronil has minimal effects on nematode species even at a concentration of 250,000 lg L -1 (Pino and Jove 2005). From the results of SSD analysis, it is clear that the extirpation concentration (HC99) for L. humile established around Kobe may simultaneously cause the local extinction of ground arthropod communities (Fig. 2). "
    Dataset: E15
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    • "Biotic adversaries in the soil that reduce applied EPN numbers include a variety of organisms, such as protozoans, predacious mites, bacteria, nematophagous fungi, and other free-living and competitor nematodes (Kaya, 2002; Duncan et al., 2007; Campos-Herrera et al., 2011a; 2011b). When using EPNs in an IPM scheme, it is important to determine the compatibility and interactions of the EPNs with agrochemicals such as pesticides (García del Pino & Jové, 2005; Gutiérrez et al., 2008 "
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    ABSTRACT: In South Africa, the most common method of mealybug control has been the use of chemical insecticides. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the of the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae potentially can be used within an integrated pest management scheme to control Planococcus ficus, the vine mealybug, which occurs on all parts of grapevine, including the roots. When Steinernema yirgalemense was applied to the soil of two vineyards with P. ficus, contained in pierced Eppendorf tubes, buried at a depth of 15 cm in the soil, mortalities of up to 50% were obtained after 48 h. The persistence of S. yirgalemense, measured using codling moth larval mortality was found to be zero in one vineyard, while in the other it was 70%, 12 weeks after application. Tests were conducted to establish the production of scavenger deterrent factors by H. zealandica and S. yirgalemense. Of the cadavers that were presented six days after nematode infection, 49% of the H. zealandica- and 60% of the S. yirgalemense-infected cadavers were left intact. Olfactometry tests indicated a significant difference concerning the number of S. yirgalemense infective juveniles (IJs) that were attracted to damaged Vitis vinifera roots and P. ficus, indicating active movement of the IJs and the attractive ability of organic compounds produced by the roots. This study shows that EPNs, and specifically S. yirgalemense, have promising potential as biological control agents for the control of P. ficus soil populations, and investigates some influential factors affecting EPNs as biocontrol agents in the agro-ecosystem.
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    • "Moreover, there is little information on the influence of agrochemical on EPN virulence, considering this term as 'aggregation of various factors that contribute to causing harm to a host' (Shapiro-Ilan, Fuxa, Lacey, Onstad and Kaya 2005). Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) is widespread in several bioclimatic regions (Hominick 2002), is the most abundant species in Spain (García del Pino 2005; Campos-Herrera et al. 2007), and several strains are also commercially available worldwide (Kaya et al. 2006). The native S. feltiae Rioja strain shows promising results against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as compared to 17 native Mediterranean EPNs strains (Gutiérrez and Campos-Herrera, submitted). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of three neurotoxic insecticides, three photosynthetic inhibitor herbicides and three enzymatic inhibitor herbicides on infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema feltiae Rioja (native) and ENTONEM® (commercial) strains were evaluated after a 48-h exposure at field tank concentrations and overnight treatment in mQ-water, using Spodoptera littoralis as target. Nematode survival was not affected by acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors chlorpyrifos and pirimicarb, although chlorpyrifos seriously reduced their virulence. Both nematode strains showed differential sensitivity to cypermethrin, which affects the sodium channels of the nerve membrane, with the ENTONEM® strain being more tolerant than Rioja strain. However, these chemicals showed a strong sublethal effect on the nematode reproductive potential, limiting seriously their possible recycling in the field. Herbicides showed differential toxic effects on nematode survival. The commercial strain was tolerant to enzymatic inhibitor herbicides, whereas tribenuron and chlorsulfuron reduced Rioja strain survival. However, photosynthetic inhibitor herbicides severely affected survival of both nematode strains, with the Rioja strain being more sensitive. Sublethal effects on both nematode strains were observed only after exposition to terbutryn+chlortoluron+triasulfuron, increasing the time to kill insect larvae. These results are useful to optimize EPN dosages and to estimate their field recycling.
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