Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes with fipronil.
ABSTRACT The survival and infectivity of infective juveniles (IJs) of three species of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, S. arenarium (Artyukhovsky) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), were determined after exposure to different concentrations (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm) of fipronil, an insecticide acting on the GABA receptors to block the chloride channel. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was very tolerant to all concentrations of fipronil, with the highest mortality of 17% being observed at 2000 ppm of fipronil after 72 h exposure. Steinernema carpocapsae showed a similar response, with the highest mortality of 11.25% of IJs being observed after 72 h exposure to 2000 ppm of fipronil. Steinernema arenarium was, however, more sensitive to fipronil, and at 2000 ppm mortality rates of 94.6% and 100% were observed after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Fipronil had negligible effects on the infectivity of the three nematode species tested. The IJs which survive exposure to all concentrations of fipronil tested can infect and reproduce in Galleria larvae. The moderate effects on entomopathogenic nematodes of a lower fipronil concentration (250 ppm) and the field rates (12-60 ppm) of fipronil used as insecticide, suggest that direct mixing of entomopathogenic nematodes and fipronil at field rates is a viable integrated pest management option.
Article: Environmental Fate of Fipronil
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ABSTRACT: The efficacy of soil treatments of three native entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) against Tuta absoluta larvae, pupae and adults was determined under laboratory conditions. The effect of three insecticides commonly used against T. absoluta, in the survival, infectivity and reproduction of these nematode strains was also evaluated. When dropped into soil to pupate, soil application of nematodes resulted in a high mortality of larvae: 100, 52.3 and 96.7 % efficacy for S. carpocapsae, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora respectively. No mortality of pupae was observed and mortality of adults emerging from soil was 79.1 %for S. carpocapsae and 0.5 %for S. feltiae. The insecticides tested had a negligible effect on nematode survival, infectivity and reproduction. No sublethal effects were observed. Infective juveniles that survived to insecticide exposition were able to infect Galleria larvae with no significant differences from the control. The Galleria larvae affected by the three insecticides tested served as suitable hosts for the infection and reproduction of the nematodes. These results suggest that larvae of T. absoluta, falling from leaves following insecticide application, could be suitable hosts for nematodes, thereby increasing their concentration and persistence in the soil.BioControl 01/2013; · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of three neurotoxic insecticides, three photosynthetic inhibitor herbicides and three enzymatic inhibitor herbicides on infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema feltiae Rioja (native) and ENTONEM® (commercial) strains were evaluated after a 48-h exposure at field tank concentrations and overnight treatment in mQ-water, using Spodoptera littoralis as target. Nematode survival was not affected by acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitors chlorpyrifos and pirimicarb, although chlorpyrifos seriously reduced their virulence. Both nematode strains showed differential sensitivity to cypermethrin, which affects the sodium channels of the nerve membrane, with the ENTONEM® strain being more tolerant than Rioja strain. However, these chemicals showed a strong sublethal effect on the nematode reproductive potential, limiting seriously their possible recycling in the field. Herbicides showed differential toxic effects on nematode survival. The commercial strain was tolerant to enzymatic inhibitor herbicides, whereas tribenuron and chlorsulfuron reduced Rioja strain survival. However, photosynthetic inhibitor herbicides severely affected survival of both nematode strains, with the Rioja strain being more sensitive. Sublethal effects on both nematode strains were observed only after exposition to terbutryn+chlortoluron+triasulfuron, increasing the time to kill insect larvae. These results are useful to optimize EPN dosages and to estimate their field recycling.Biocontrol Science and Technology - BIOCONTROL SCI TECHNOL. 01/2008; 18(1):101-108.