Downregulation of aquaporin 5 induced by vector-based short hairpin RNA and its effect on MUC5AC gene expression in human airway submucosal gland cells.
ABSTRACT The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of homologous water channels expressed in many epithelial and endothelial cells, however no reliable and non-toxic inhibitors of AQPs have been reported yet. Our researchers have analyzed the changes of AQP5 expression induced by vector-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in the human airway submucosal gland cell line (SPC-A1) and observed its regulation on the expression of MUC5AC gene. Localizations of AQP5 and MUC5AC in SPC-A1cells were detected by Immunofluorescence. AQP5 mRNA was significantly reduced by 75.1% one day after transfection with specific shRNA, named shAQP5. However, the significant suppression of AQP5 protein did not appear until day 5 after transfection. MUC5AC mRNA was remarkably increased by 119.9% On day 3 after shAQP5 transfection, while comparable MUC5AC protein changes were not found in SPC-A1 cells with flow cytometry analysis. These results indicate that vector-based shRNA could be used as a potential tool to inhibit the expression of AQP5. This is the first investigation providing evidence demonstrating the regulation of the mucin gene by AQP5 gene silencing.
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ABSTRACT: Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is a water channel protein expressed on the apical surface of alveolar epithelial type I cells in distal rat lung, suggesting a role for AQP5 in regulating alveolar surface liquid tonicity and/or cell volume. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying hypertonic induction of AQP5 in primary rat alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Steady-state levels of AQP5 mRNA and protein were increased by exposure to sorbitol (200 mM in culture fluid) for 24 h. The increase in AQP5 was not accompanied by changes in mRNA half-life. Transduction of mouse lung epithelial (MLE-15) cells and primary rat AEC with lentivirus vectors encoding AQP5-luciferase demonstrated transcriptional activation of the reporter by exposure to hypertonic sorbitol solution. Hybridization of proteins from sorbitol-treated cells to a transcription factor DNA array demonstrated induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) by hypertonicity, which was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Cotransfections of AQP5-luciferase with HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta expression plasmids in MLE-15 cells led to dose-dependent transcriptional enhancement, which was partially abrogated by mutagenesis of putative HIF-1alpha binding sites in the proximal AQP5 promoter. Importantly, hypertonic induction of AQP5 was significantly inhibited by preventing HIF-1alpha induction with small interfering RNA. Hypertonicity induced activation of a transiently transfected vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) hypoxia response element-driven luciferase construct and increased expression of endogenous VEGF. These results demonstrate that hypertonic induction of both AQP5 and VEGF is transcriptionally regulated and mediated, at least in part, by HIF-1alpha, suggesting a novel role for HIF-1alpha in modulating cellular adaptive responses to osmotic stress.AJP Cell Physiology 05/2007; 292(4):C1280-90. · 3.71 Impact Factor
- Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University 01/2008; 28(2):126-130.
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ABSTRACT: Aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) has been found to be important in bile formation across cell membranes of the biliary epithelium, and thus it has been suggested that AQP-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary disease. To clarify the role of AQP-1 in the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, we determined AQP-1 expression in the normal bile duct, 21 cases of biliary dysplasia, and in 112 cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma by immunohistochemical analysis. Mucus core protein 5AC expression, a poor prognostic marker of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, was also assessed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cases. High (>50%) expression of AQP-1 was detected in 16% (9/58) of the normal large bile ducts examined, and in 48% (10/21) of the biliary dysplasia samples originating from large bile ducts. High (>50%), low (<or=50%), and negative AQP-1 expression was observed in 46 (41%), 20 (19%), and 46 (41%) cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, respectively. Large tumor size (>40 mm) and poorly differentiated histology were significantly more prevalent in the negative AQP-1 group than in the high AQP-1 group. Low or negative AQP-1 expression was associated with positive lymph node metastasis (P=.0001). AQP-1 expression was found to inversely correlate with that of mucus core protein 5AC, and their distributions tended to be complementary. The low and negative AQP-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor by multivariate survival analysis. We concluded that AQP-1 is up-regulated in biliary dysplasia, as compared with in the normal large bile duct, and down-regulation of AQP-1 is associated with mucin production and aggressive progression of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.Human Pathlogy 01/2008; 38(12):1819-25. · 2.84 Impact Factor