Article

Using urinary biomarkers to elucidate dose-related patterns of human benzene metabolism.

School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, and National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Carcinogenesis (Impact Factor: 5.27). 05/2006; 27(4):772-81. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgi297
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although the toxicity of benzene has been linked to its metabolism, the dose-related production of metabolites is not well understood in humans, particularly at low levels of exposure. We investigated unmetabolized benzene in urine (UBz) and all major urinary metabolites [phenol (PH), E,E-muconic acid (MA), hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CA)] as well as the minor metabolite, S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), in 250 benzene-exposed workers and 139 control workers in Tianjin, China. Median levels of benzene exposure were approximately 1.2 p.p.m. for exposed workers (interquartile range: 0.53-3.34 p.p.m.) and 0.004 p.p.m. for control workers (interquartile range: 0.002-0.007 p.p.m.). (Exposures of control workers to benzene were predicted from levels of benzene in their urine.) Metabolite production was investigated among groups of 30 workers aggregated by their benzene exposures. We found that the urine concentration of each metabolite was consistently elevated when the group's median benzene exposure was at or above the following air concentrations: 0.2 p.p.m. for MA and SPMA, 0.5 p.p.m. for PH and HQ, and 2 p.p.m. for CA. Dose-related production of the four major metabolites and total metabolites (micromol/l/p.p.m. benzene) declined between 2.5 and 26-fold as group median benzene exposures increased between 0.027 and 15.4 p.p.m. Reductions in metabolite production were most pronounced for CA and PH<1 p.p.m., indicating that metabolism favored production of the toxic metabolites, HQ and MA, at low exposures.

0 Followers
 · 
107 Views
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current levels of occupational exposure to benzene, a genotoxic human carcinogen, in Western countries are reduced by two-three orders of magnitude (from ppm to ppb) as compared to the past. However, as benzene toxicity is strongly dependent on biotransformation and recent evidence underlines a higher efficiency of bio-activation pathways at lower levels of exposure, toxic effects at low doses could be higher than expected, particularly in susceptible individuals. Currently, biological monitoring can allow accurate exposure assessment, relying on sensitive and specific enough biomarkers of internal dose. The availability of similarly reliable biomarkers of early effect or susceptibility could greatly improve the risk assessment process to such an extent that risk could even be assessed at the individual level. As to susceptibility biomarkers, functional genetic polymorphisms of relevant biotransformation enzymes may modulate the risk of adverse effects (NQO1) and the levels of biomarkers of internal dose, in particular S-phenylmercapturic acid (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTA1). Among biomarkers of early effect, genotoxicity indicators, although sensitive in some cases, are too aspecific for routine use in occupational health surveillance programmes. Currently only the periodical blood cell count seems suitable enough to be applied in the longitudinal monitoring of effects from benzene exposure. Novel biomarkers of early effect are expected from higher collaboration among toxicologists and clinicians, also using advanced "omics" techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Toxicology Letters 10/2014; 231(2). DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.10.007 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coke plant Biomass fuel Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Benzene and toluene Biomarker 8-hydroxy-2 0 -deoxyguanosine a b s t r a c t Large amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) might be emitted from incomplete combustion reactions in both coal tar factories and biomass fuels in rural China. The health effects arising from exposure to PAHs and BT are a concern for residents of rural areas close to coal tar plants. To assess the environmental risk and major exposure sources, 100 coke plant workers and 25 farmers in Qujing, China were recruited. The levels of 10 mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), four BT metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2 0 -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine collected from the subjects were measured. The 8-OHdG levels in the urine were determined to evaluate the oxidative DNA damage induced by the PAHs and BT. The results showed that the levels of the OH-PAHs, particularly those of 1-hydroxynathalene and 1-hydroxypyrene, in the farmers were 1–7 times higher than those in the workers. The concentrations of the BT metabolites were comparable between the workers and farmers. Although the exact work location within a coke oven plant might affect the levels of the OH-PAHs, one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences for either the OH-PAHs levels or the BT concentrations among the three groups working at different work sites. The geometric mean concentration (9.17 mg/g creatinine) of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the farmers than in the plant workers (6.27 mg/g creatinine). The levels of 8-OHdG did not correlate with the total concentrations of OH-PAHs and the total levels of BT metabolites. Incompletely combusted biomass fuels might be the major exposure source, contributing more PAHs and BT to the local residents of Qujing. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of naphthalene and fluorene for all of the workers and most of the farmers were below the reference doses (RfDs) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), except for the pyrene levels in two farmers. However, the EDIs of benzene in the workers and local farmers ranged from 590 to 7239 mg/day, and these levels were 2-to 30-fold higher than the RfDs recommended by the EPA. Biomass fuel combustion and industrial activities related to coal tar were the major sources of the PAH and BT exposure in the local residents. Using biomass fuels for household cooking and heating explains the higher exposure levels observed in the farmers relative to the workers at the nearby coal tar-related industrial facility.
    Environmental Research 08/2014; 135. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.08.021 · 3.95 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
42 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014